• The London chapter of the Pilgrims Society was established on July 11, 1902,
  • Charles Savoie of Silver Investor.
  • ondon Bush House

Pilgrims Society | Membership list
Highest level Anglo-American relations for over a century

Note beforehand: Since this article first appeared, knowledge about this group has greatly expanded. This first version of this article was written after about 400 names were gathered and largely analyzed; and even before any work had been done on Le Cercle and the 1001. Now we are up to at least 1500 names, including many recent ones. It will take a lot of time to do bios on these members, analyze them, and give sources with each name, but for now it can be safely concluded that many members consistently are recruited from ALL the major banks, insurance companies, and law firms in New York and London. At the same time, Pilgrims flow in and out of the elected and permanent governments of the US and UK.
I suggest you take a look at the introduction page and appendix B where the origins of this group and its influence is discussed in a bit more detail. I also suggest you check out the work of Charles Savoie, who has been publishing a lot of work on Pilgrims since late 2004.
New information on the Pilgrims might be released via the front page at times, or not. Not sure.
Finally, I also suggest you take a look at this chart, which has been put together by looking at the individual biographies of the Pilgrims Society members.
The Pilgrims Society, an aristocratic Anglo-American dining club, was established over a century ago and meets at least two or three times a year. Its membership consists of the most influential bankers, lawyers, insurance brokers, and businessmen from the New York and London areas. A handful of career politicians also come from Washington. The club's primary purpose is to keep the ties between the United States and Britain as close as possible.
The London chapter of the Pilgrims Society was established on July 11, 1902, followed by a New York chapter on January 13, 1903. Its patron is the British monarch, who has plenty of representatives attending the meetings. A member of the Royal family usually attends the London diners.
As you'll find out by looking at the membership list, the Pilgrims Society has clearly fused together the business centers of New York and London, together with a large portion of the political centers of both nations. Ninety percent of the American members are top-level bankers and businessmen from New York city.
Only a couple of Pilgrims own or chair companies with headquarters in Boston or Philadelphia. Businesses that have their headquarters in any other location than this small part of the north-east corner of the United States don't seem to be represented at all (do keep in mind that recent data is sketchy). Relatively few government officials from Washington are recruited into the Pilgrims Society. Officials from outside the UK or US visit the club occasionally. In the past they usually came from countries incorporated within the British Empire or the Commonwealth, most notably Canada and Australia.
A mistake usually made when people refer to this society, is when they call it the 'Pilgrim Society', because this name hasn't been used that often. The most often used name is the 'Pilgrims Society', sometimes spelled as 'Pilgrim's Society'. You might think this isn't such a big deal, but when you search the internet or some archives for the 'Pilgrim Society', you will hardly find any official sources, simply because they all refer to the 'Pilgrims Society'. The name 'Pilgrims Society' is also unique, so you won't confuse it with this one. Also try searching on 'The Pilgrims' or more specifically, the 'Pilgrims of the United States' and the 'Pilgrims of the United Kingdom'/'Pilgrims of Great Britain'.
The club is secret. It might be one of those 'open-secrets', but it's secret nonetheless. If it wasn't, we would have read about it in the history books, we would know all the details of the meetings, and we would have membership lists in the public domain. It is possible to find quite a bit of information in regular newspaper archives, but you really have to look for it. It takes forever to piece the story together. For example, The Scotsman made numerous references to it in the first half of the century (archives are only available up to 1950 atm). Time Magazine made them much less, but still referred to the club once every few years. After 1958, Time only mentioned the club 2 or 3 times, even though meetings continued as usual. Other newspapers in the U.S., like the New York Times and the Washington Post have referred the Pilgrims at times. The Wall Street Journal on the other hand never mentioned a whole lot about this dining club at any time in the past century. The Times of London mentioned the society a couple of times in the past 10 years, even though, as all the other papers, it didn't give many details about who's attending. Most other newspapers, including the Scotsman, New York Post, Washington Times, or even the Guardian, seem to have been (almost) completely silent about the Pilgrims in the last 5 to 7 years (that's how far the digital archives go back). In other countries it's virtually impossible to get any information on the Pilgrims. Not one large Dutch newspaper has mentioned the name in the past 20 years. References in German or French newspapers are just as uncommon. One thing you actually càn find, is different speeches on official websites; One at NATO, another one at the State Department, and yet another one from 1999 on the MoD website. They all deal with one little speech and when you ask for some background information you won't get any replies. And that's strange. Maybe it's done to give people the impression there's nothing unusual about the club. Indeed, looking at the speeches there certainly isn't. All they do is talk about regular pro-NATO politics and kiss up to their "brothers" on the other side of the ocean. Two recent examples:
[1]January 2002, Lord Robertson, 'NATO after September 11'
[2]November 2002, Richard Boucher on Foreign policy, the EU, and NATO
You can find other speeches in the references at the bottom of this article. Of course, it's probably not because of the speeches that the Pilgrims Society keeps itself out of the public eye. More likely it's because of who's being informed and for what purpose. Also, it's obvious that members discuss a lot of other business among themselves.

More in depth

As already stated, those who own or run the major banking houses, law firms, and insurance companies in the London and New York area will be invited to join, together with a few very specific government officials. This always includes the president of the United States, the U.S. Secretary of State and the U.S. ambassador to Great Britain. On the right you can see which other delegates traditionally are recruited into Pilgrims. Chancellors, Chief Justices, and Attorney Generals seem to be frequent members also. Occasional exceptions have been made to allow writers, composers and art collectors into the society. An example of that was Mark Twain. The patron of the 
Pilgrims Society is the king or queen of England and a member from the royal family usually attends the Pilgrim dinners in Great Britain.
That's basically all there is to this Pilgrims Society; it's a dining club. Several times a year a dinner is planned and the board chooses which members it will invite this time, usually somewhere between 300 and 500. A few additional people are invited to hold a speech on a variety of political topics and someone is made the guest of honor. This guest of honor is usually a new member or a Pilgrim who has accomplished something worth remembering. In addition, the chairman of the Society (in Britain it is Robert M. Worcester atm) might give a speech to the CFR or the RIIA once in a while. As already demonstrated, the speeches are both boring and interesting at the same time. Boring because of their substance, and interesting because they show us that Pilgrims, as a whole, aren't privy to many state secrets.
A great example of the cooperation between the London and American Pilgrims is the London Bush House, which was ordered to be built in 1919 by Pilgrim Irving T. Bush, a N.Y. businessman. At the time it was the most expensive building in the world and was meant to be an Anglo-American trade center where buyers could purchase goods in one place. It lost its original function after a couple of decades, but still exists today as an office to the BBC World Service. Above the entrance there's a large statue, which represents this Anglo-American cooperation.
Britain is represented on the left by the lions, the USA is represented on the right by the Eagle. The Celtic cross indicates their common heritage. The torch can represent freedom, wisdom, victory, or something along that line. Below the statue you'll find the inscription "To the friendship of English Speaking Peoples".
The Pilgrims Society is allied with the English-Speaking Union, which is an organization that promotes the use of the English language all over the world. The patron is the English queen and the president is prince Philip. The chairman, as far as we know, is always a member of the Pilgrims.

The institutions the Pilgrims control

All the important members of the 1910 Jekyll Island meeting were Pilgrims; Vanderlip, Strong, Warburg, Davison, Norton, and Aldrich. Senator Aldrich's closest ally in congress, Edward B. Vreeland, was a Pilgrim too, together with his brother. Vreeland helped Aldrich establish a privately owned central bank. Of course, J.P. Morgan, George F. Baker, John D. Rockefeller, and Jacob Schiff were members also. Keep in mind these people were often competing with each other and weren't necessarily friends, as so many (conspiracy-oriented) people seem to think.

N.Y. FED 'Pilgrim-presidents'

Benjamin Strong


George Harrison


Allan Sproul


Alfred Hayes


Paul Volcker


Anthony Solomon


E. Gerald Corrigan


William J. McDonough


Timothy Geithner


Red = confirmed Pilgrim

Pilgrim-presidents of the New York Federal Reserve Bank cover the period from 1914 to 1979. The 4 presidents since then have not been members as far as we know, although that's probably because of a lack of recent data. Pilgrim-chairmen of the New York Federal Reserve cover almost the entire period from the 1920s up to 1990, so we can safely assume that the New York Federal Reserve Bank is owned by the Pilgrims. That's not that unusual, because New York itself is Pilgrims property.
Because the Pilgrims have a large influence on Washington politics, it would be interesting to see if they have any members on the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, also located in D.C. If we have those names, we can estimate the Pilgrims' level of control over the Federal Open Market Committee. The FOMC is the main body of the Federal Reserve that decides on the monetary policy. The New York FED then carries out those directives through its daily 'open market operations'. In the words of the official Federal Reserve website that I just gave a link to:
"Finally, the Committee [FOMC] must reach a consensus regarding the appropriate course for policy, which is incorporated in a directive to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York—the Bank that executes transactions for the System Open Market Account. The directive is cast in terms designed to provide guidance to the Manager in the conduct of day-to-day open market operations. The directive sets forth the Committee's objectives for long-run growth of certain key monetary and credit aggregates. It also sets forth operating guidelines for the degree of ease or restraint to be sought in reserve conditions and expectations with regard to short-term rates of growth in the monetary aggregates."
The FOMC consists of the 7 FED governors, 1 permanent New York FED president, and 4 presidents of the other 11 FED banks that rotate each year. The chairman of the board of governors is also the chairman of the FOMC, and the president of the permanently represented New York FED is the vice chairman of the FOMC. We quote from the same page:
"...Traditionally, the Chairman of the Board of Governors is elected Chairman and the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York is elected Vice Chairman..."
When sifting through the members list, it turns out that at least 4 of the 13 Federal Reserve chairmen are confirmed Pilgrims (they cover the years 1933-1934 & 1959-1987). Two other chairmen, Eugene Meyer and Alan Greenspan, have all the trademarks of being Pilgrims members. If that could be confirmed, the FED's Board of Governors has had Pilgrims as chairman from at least 1930 to 1934 & from 1959 on to 2005. In any case, the Pilgrims Society seems to be represented a disproportionate amount on the most influential places inside the U.S. monetary system, especially for a society that doesn't want its existence to be known to the general public. It is likely that at least since 1959 the chairman and vice chairman of the FOMC were Pilgrims, together with the persons carrying out the directives of the FOMC through the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

Function Amount

CFR non-executive members


CFR executive members


Carnegie Institute executives


FED executive positions


J.P. Morgan executives


Chase Bank executives


Skull & Bones


President World Bank

4 (of 10)

After analyzing the Pilgrims Society members list of about 360 names (updated in the meantime), I found that the institutions you see on the left were the most often represented. About 75% of this list is American and 25% British (rough estimate). This means that about 1 in 3 of the U.S. members of the Pilgrims Society is a confirmed member of the CFR. Striking is the fact that such a large percentage of CFR members are executive officers. About 50% of all the CFR executive officers have been confirmed members of the Pilgrims Society, which seems to indicate that quite possibly all of them are.
I remember looking at an old documentary about the CFR "master conspiracy". The usual stuff came by; banking, the Illuminati and the dollar bill. At the end they showed these concentric rings, indicating the CFR had unknown inner circles. Guess we can now say for sure what the second circle is, counting from the outside. It's the Pilgrims Society and it undeniably shows the close link between American and British foreign policy.
Of course, it has long been speculated that the same group that set up the RIIA, set up the CFR, but I was never convinced enough though, because the group connecting both organizations has never been fully identified. The existence of the Round Table, however likely, has never been proven. For now, the Pilgrims Society, a seemingly larger body, is a fine substitute, because it shares many similarities with the "association of helpers" from the Round Table. Read this text from the 1966 book 'Tragedy and Hope - A history of the world in our time', written by Oxford professor Carroll Quigley:
"In 1891, Rhodes organized a secret society with members in a "Circle of Initiates" and an outer circle known as the "Association of Helpers" later organized as the Round Table organization. In 1909-1913, they organized semi-secret groups know as Round Table Groups in the chief British dependencies and the United States..
The Round Table Groups were semi-secret discussion and lobbying groups whose original purpose was to federate the English speaking world along lines laid down by Cecil Rhodes. By 1915, Round Table groups existed in seven countries including England, South Africa, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and the United States.
Money for their activities originally came from Cecil Rhodes, J.P. Morgan, the Rockefeller and Whitney families and associates of bankers Lazard Brothers and Morgan, Grenfell and Company.
The chief backbone of this organization grew up along the already existing financial cooperation running from the Morgan Bank in New York to a group of international financiers in London led by Lazard Brothers.
Lionel Curtis established in England and each dominion a front organization to the existing local Round Table Group. This front organization called the Royal Institute of Public Affairs, had as its nucleus in each area the existing submerged Round Table Group.
In New York, it was known as the Council on Foreign Relations and was a front for J.P. Morgan and Company in association with the very small American Round Table Group. The American organizers were dominated by the large number of Morgan "experts" including Lamont and Beer, who had gone to the Paris Peace Conference and there became close friends with the similar group of English "experts" which had been recruited by the Milner group. In fact, the original plans for the Royal Institute and the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1928, the Council on Foreign Relations was dominated by the associates of the Morgan bank. Closely allied with this Morgan influence were a small group of Wall Street lawyers whose chief figures were Elihu Root, John W. Davis, the Dulles Brothers, John J. McCloy...
...There does exist and has existed for a generation, an international Anglophile network which operates to some extent in the way the Radical Right believes the Communists act. In fact, this network, which we may identify as the Round Table Groups, has no aversion to cooperating with the Communists, or any other groups, and frequently does so...
...It might be pointed out that the existence of this Wall Street Anglo-American axis is quite obvious once it is pointed out. It is reflected by the fact that such Wall Street luminaries such as John W. Davis, Lewis Douglas, [John] Whitney and Douglas Dillon were appointed to be American ambassadors in London."
If we forget about the other groups, the description of the U.S. and U.K. Round Table Groups as submerged nucleuses of respectively the CFR and the RIIA is the perfect description of the Pilgrims Society. Also, the only name of a person in the quote above, that is not represented in my incomplete Pilgrims members list, is Lionel Curtis. All the other names are confirmed Pilgrims. And what is said here about the large number of Morgan representatives is something I also immediately noticed when I was filling in all the biographies. Even though Rockefeller interests, especially in later times, were just as dominant, the history of the Morgan family really shows their ties to England through
George Peabody and Junius S. Morgan. At the turn of the century, the Morgans wielded enormous power over the United States economy [1].
Besides the organizations I put in the table above, you will also find that institutions like the Atlantic Institute for International Affairs, Bilderberg, the Bohemian Grove, the Trilateral Commission, the Brookings Institution, the Ford Foundation, the Ditchley Foundations, the Fabian Society, the Japan Society, the Asia Society, the American-Australian Association, and some others, are quite frequently represented. I didn't specifically look for these institutions though, simply because it takes me too much time. Often, these institutes aren't mentioned in the bios of the person you're researching.
The reason that you find quite a few Skull & Bones members (or members who have family in Skull & bones) in the Pilgrims Society is probably because Yale is a prestigious University and a first choice for many law and MBA students. It's also located close to New York. Don't kid yourself however, 20 year old boys don't rule anything. You'll also find at least 5 Scroll & Key members and many more Yale students who haven't been into any society. But as far as I can see, the Pilgrims Society is open to anyone who learns enough, works enough, and winds up in the right place for a Pilgrims invitation. Harvard and Columbia are other common universities where Pilgrims have studied.

Some examples of involvement of the Pilgrims over the last 100 years
1906 - Pilgrims are involved in the secret Algeciras Conference to settle a dispute among the British, Germans, and French about the division of Morocco.
1913 - The earlier mentioned establishment of the Federal Reserve and of course the 1910 Jekyll Island meeting that preceded it.
1917 - Some Pilgrims are said to have been financing the Communist revolution of 1917. Most is known about the partners of Kuhn, Loeb & Co.; Pilgrims Jacob Schiff, Paul Warburg and Otto Kahn.
1919 - Many Pilgrims played an important role in the Versailles peace conferences following WWI. In all the history books I've seen, only the discussions of the 'big three', Woodrow Wilson, Lloyd George and Georges Clemenceau, are emphasized. I'm still looking for all the names involved, but I've already seen quite a few Pilgrims and suspected Pilgrims. In any case, Robert Cecil, chairman of the Supreme Economic Council of the Versailles Peace Treaty was a member. In the same year, he was the chairman of the committee that established the Royal Institute of International Affairs.
1924 - After the German economy was completely taken apart and they couldn't pay their imposed debts anymore, the Reparations Commission Committee of Experts was set up. President Coolidge appointed Pilgrim Charles G. Dawes as chairman. The committee comes up with the so called 'Dawes-plan'.
1927 - It is said that Pilgrim Benjamin Strong (head FED) and Pilgrim Montagu Norman (head Bank of England) had at least one secret meeting in July of this year with their friend Hjalmar Schacht of the German Reichsbank.
1930 - The Young plan, which is named after committee chairman and Pilgrim Owen D. Young, is introduced as a follow up of the Pilgrims concocted Dawes plan, because Germany still can't pay their debts. Hjalmar Schacht doesn't agree with the reparations and quits as the head of the German Reichsbank. The same year Schacht becomes a Fascist, starts bringing all the German industrialists together and becomes the most crucial person for bringing Hitler to power in 1933.
1933 and on - J.P. Morgan and Rockefeller associates are financing Nazi germany. Pilgrims Watson and Watson Jr. of IBM are involved. Pilgrims Douglas Dillon Sr. and Jr. are involved. Pilgrim Averell Harriman is involved. Ford was involved, and looking at the prominent presence of the Ford Foundation in the Pilgrims Society, he probably was a member too.
1934 - Because general Smedley Butler exposes the planned coup, FDR is not overthrown and replaced by a fascist government. The persons financing various fascist elements turn out to be the Pilgrims Morgan Jr., the du Ponts, Louis S. Cates through Phelps-Dodge company, and undoubtedly many other, but unconfirmed, Pilgrims. As for Phelps-Dodge, the Rockefellers had married into that fortune in 1907 through a marriage between Geraldine Rockefeller, daughter of William Rockefeller, and Marcellus Hartley Dodge.
1945 - Nazis, Knights of Malta (SMOM), and elements in the OSS create the so called 'Vatican rat lines', through which thousands of Nazis are smuggled into Spain, South-Africa, and South-America. Pilgrim and SMOM member Allen Dulles played a large role in this project. He also plays a crucial role in releasing and recruiting Nazi intelligence chief Reinhard Gehlen (Le Cercle) so this person can establish the Gehlen Organization. This Gehlen Org becomes the eyes and ears of the CIA in eastern Europe. Reinhard recruits many serious nazis in his organization.
1946 - Pilgrim Francis Beverly Biddle was one of the four primary judges at the Nuremberg trials representing the United States. I'll bet the British judge (and president) of the trials was a member of the British Pilgrims.
1947 - Pilgrims Society member, five-star general and U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall introduces his European Recovery Program (ERP).
around 1948 - Pilgrim John J. McCloy oversees the release of Fritz Thyssen, Hjalmar Schacht, Friedrich Flick and Alfred Krupp. They are the main industrialists who built up the Nazi war machine and are close associates of different Pilgrims Society members.
1949 - Pilgrims member and ambassador Lewis Williams Douglas had a daughter, Sharman Douglas, who, according to a very sure ITV (competitor of the BBC), had a 2-year lesbian affair with Queen Elizabeth II's younger sister, Princess Margaret Windsor. Sharman also married Andrew Hay of the Pilgrims. (Normally I wouldn't dive into tabloid topics, but this is just too funny to pass over)
1951 - General Douglas MacArthur, who has just driven back the North-Koreans, is removed from his command when he doesn't accept the decision from the US government to not attack the Chinese forces. Pilgrims Harry Truman, Dean Acheson and George C. Marshall are his main adversaries on this issue. MacArthur is replaced by Pilgrim Matthew B. Ridgway. Senator McCarthy attacks Truman, Acheson and Marshall for being in the communist camp.
1954 - Some of the earliest invites to the Bilderberg conference are Pilgrims Society members; David Rockefeller, George Ball, and Henry Heinz.
1961 - Howard Hughes, owner of Trans World Airlines, is charging Pilgrim Charles C. Tillinghast, Jr., the president of his company, with conspiring with others to take over the ownership the company.
1963 - Pilgrims John J. McCloy and Allen Dulles are members of the Warren Commission. Gerald Ford, a future honorary Pilgrim, is a third member.
1965-1973 - During the Vietnam war, Pilgrim Henry Kissinger is the chief US negotiator for the communist regimes. At the same time, Kissinger and many of his Pilgrims Society buddies were investing massive amounts of capital into the Soviet Union, even though this country continued to supply about 50% of North-Vietnams military arms. Of course, these were allowed to enter North-Vietnam almost unobstructed, because the US government was afraid for an escalation of the conflict if Haiphong harbor was closed off and bombed into oblivion. Pilgrims Society members controlled at least some of the institutions that had to check the goods that were imported into the USSR.
1973 - Pilgrim Edward W. Simon was chairman of the President's Oil Policy Committee from February to December of 1973 (oil crisis started in October in the midst of the Yom Kippur war). He also was an administrator of the Federal Energy Office since December 1973 and was charged with the responsibility of minimizing the effects of the energy crisis and preventing future crises (decided the oil prices and the distribution). Together with Pilgrim Henry Kissinger he was the most important speaker of the 1974 International Energy Conference. In 1973, Henry Kissinger first informed the Pilgrims about the creation of an "International Energy group", which became the International Energy Agency.
1975 - Pilgrim Nelson Rockefeller heads the U.S. President's Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States. It was created in response to a December 1974 report in The New York Times that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on U.S. citizens, during the 1960s. The commission was, among other things, responsible for the investigation and publication of Project MKULTRA, a CIA mind control study.
1977 - Pilgrims Society member Edmund de Rothschild attends the 1st World Wilderness Conference. At the 4th conference Maurice Strong will inform everyone that Edmund was the founder of the environmental movement and climate debates everyone has become so accustomed to.
1992 - Pilgrim Lord Bingham of Cornhill heads an inquiry into the Bank of England to find out their responsibility in the BCCI drug laundering scandal. Turns out the Bank of England was just a bit lazy, but didn't do anything on purpose. The persons that owned the BCCI were 1001 Club member like Agha Hasan Abedi and Salem Bin Laden. Kalid bin Mahfouz was another one. Lord Bingham became a member of the very elite Order of Garter in 2005. Some other persons involved with the BCCI scandal were members of the secret international intelligence group Le Cercle.
2001 - Henry Kissinger, who was picked as the first chairman of the 9/11 Commission, was a Pilgrim, not to mention one of the pioneers of psychological warfare in the aftermath of WWII; all in all, a great asset to have on a truth commission. The old vice-chairman of the 9/11 Commission, George John Mitchell, became a director of the CFR in 1995, so chances are very substantial he's a Pilgrim too. The new chairman, Thomas H. Kean, is from a very prominent New Jersey family and has been a chairman of the Carnegie Foundation, so don't be surprised if it turns out that he also attends Pilgrims dinners (or 1001 Club meetings in his case).
2002 - In December of this year, Pilgrims Society member Lord Guthrie, former chief of the Defense Staff and out of office by then, is send to Turkey to discuss a possible invasion of Iraq via Turkey. He becomes an apologist for the Bush and Blair administrations, and warns the public for biological and nuclear attacks by terrorists. According to him, Syria is one of the largest supporters of terrorism. But who else is Lord Guthrie? He's a member of the Knights of Malta, a patron of the Cardinal Hume centre, a director of N.M. Rothschild & Sons, and represents the latter to the Trilateral Commission since 2002. In the past, Guthrie has been appointed Gold Stick to the Queen and Freeman of the City of London. He was also appointed Aide-de-Camp General to the Queen in 1993.
2004 - Pilgrims Society member Lord Peter Inge is part of a five-member panel that looks into the gathered intelligence that was used to justify an invasion in Iraq the year before. All 5 are Privy Councillors and just as the panel's chairman, Lord Inge is a knight of the Order of the Garter.


It is obvious that the Pilgrims Society has a very interesting history and that its membership consists of very influential people. Above all, it seems that the Pilgrims Society represents that old dream of Cecil Rhodes to create a worldwide English-speaking free-trade zone (his exact words), with the dominant position for the Anglo-Saxon race. Rhodes had also been speculating about a network of secret societies that had to absorb the wealth of the world. In fact, the enormous fortune he left behind was probably used to set up the Pilgrims Society just 4 months after he died. But especially these days, 'free-trade' policies seem to
be nothing more than a tool by which western companies wrestle control of foreign markets. This makes it hard to say if their ultimate goal of 'global peace' really is that noble.
In the course the 20th century, especially after WWII, many organizations with similar objectives have sprung up worldwide. Among them are Bilderberg, the Trilateral Commission, the British Invisibles, the European Round Table, the Group of thirty, the European Institute, the Trans-Atlantic Business Dialogue, the 1001 Club, the EU-Japan Business Dialogue, the Pacific Basin Economic Council, Le Cercle, the Multinational Chairman's Group, and dozens more.
In every single case, British and American interests are represented more than adequately, at the very least in leadership positions. Even though recent names are in rather short supply it has already become obvious that we can find most, if not all of these leaders back in the Pilgrims Society. This indicates that we are dealing with one of the most important privately funded institutions of the globalist movement. But, like I already said, let's not exaggerate by saying that we found 'the puppet masters' or something like that. At any time, there are loads of intelligence operations going on most of the well over a 1000 members know nothing about. Also, looking at the bios, it's obvious that there is considerable infighting going on and that different members can't get along with each other at all. So, as for now, I suggest that we focus our energy on gathering as many names as possible. Then the picture will become clear by itself.
A lot of additional information on the Anglo-American establishment and/or the British Empire can be found in the books of professor Carroll Quigley. The articles on Executive Intelligence Review also contain a lot of insightful information.


[1]October 1901, #6, McClure’s Magazine, ‘J. Pierpont Morgan’
[2]February 05, 1903, Reuters, 'Lord C. Beresford in Washington'
[3]March 3, 1903, The Scotsman, 'Great Britain and the United States - Banquet in London'
[4]June 20, 1903, The Scotsman, 'MP George Wyndham at the Pilgrims Club'
[5]February 20, 1908, New York Times, ‘Ambassador Reid – the Pilgrims guest’
[6]April 24, 1910, Associated Press, Mark Twain deceased - Pilgrims visit
[7]February 6, 1913, The Scotsman, King George delivers message at Pilgrims Society
[8]December 24, 1915, The Scotsman, 'Closer Unity of the British Empire'
[9]June 1, 1918, Press Association, 'Hands off the Southern Pacific'
[10]December 22, 1919, The Scotsman, Pilgrims celebrate 299th birthday of original Pilgrims
[11]March 17, 1924, Time Magazine, 'A Summing-Up'
[12]April 21, 1924, Time Magazine, 'The Judgment'
(13]December 2, 1926, The Scotsman, 'Duke of York - Pilgrims God Speed'
[14]May 4, 1928, The Scotsman, Nicholas Butler becomes the new president of the U.S. club
[15]July 6, 1931, Time Magazine, '30 Years of Picasso'
[16]October 26, 1939, The Scotsman, Pilgrims speaker denounces the Nazis as Barbarian Pagans
[17]November 6, 1939, Time Magazine, ‘Aims and Rights’
[18]1940, John Whiteford, ‘Sir Uncle Sam, Knight of the British Empire’
[19]January 20, 1941, Time Magazine, 'Churchill & the U.S.'
(20]March 20, 1941, The Scotsman, Nazis denounce Churchill's Pilgrims speech and the Anglo-Saxons
[21]December 3, 1942, The Scotsman, 'New World Order - Path of Equality and Human Brotherhood'
[22]E.C. Knuth, 1946, ‘The Empire of the City’
[23]December 13, 1947, The Scotsman, 'Marshall on his Mission'
[24]October 23, 1950, Time Magazine, No Pushing
[25]November 7, 1950, The Scotsman, 'No Slackening after Korea'
[26]Oct. 27, 1952, Time Magazine, 'No Pushing'
[26]July 2, 1956, Time Magazine, 'Give 'Em Hell, Harricum!'
[27]Dec. 8, 1958, Time Magazine, 'The Double Dare'
[28]April 16, 1965, Time Magazine, Ambassador Patrick farewell
[29]1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy and Hope - A history of the world in our time'
[30]December 1973, Kissinger addresses the Pilgrims and suggests an "International Energy group"
[31]June 1975, American Opinion, William P. Hoar, ‘Henry Kissinger: This Man Is On The Other Side’
[32]January 30, 1981, Reuters, 'Mrs. Thatcher Detects No Sign Of Moscow's Interest in Detente' (excerpt)
[33]1983 (original from 1952), Eustace Mullins, ‘Secrets of the Federal Reserve’
[34]December 10, 1985, New York Times, ' Excerpts From Shultz Remarks on Aid to Rebels' (excerpt)
[35]Official Federal Reserve websites
[36]April 20, 1994, The Times, 'Britain belongs to Europe'
[37]April 20, 1994, The Times, 'US ambassador leaves with rebuke for Euro-sceptics; Raymond Seitz'
[38]November 16, 1994, The Times, 'US tries to forge pact on eastward expansion of Nato'
[39]April 6, 1995, The Times, 'FDR and The Times'
[40]June 30, 1999, MOD, Speech of George Robertson
[41]2002, Anne Baker Pimlott, ‘The Pilgrims of Great Britain – a centennial history’
[42]2002, Antony Sutton, ‘America’s Secret Establishment’
[43]Watch.pair.com, ‘The Pilgrim Society & The English Speaking Union’
[44]January 31, 2002, nato.int, ‘NATO After September 11’
[45]November 28, 2002, U.S. State Department, ‘State's Boucher on U.S. Foreign Policy, EU and NATO, Iraq, Freedom’
[46]2002, University of Dundee, 'Laureation Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne - Professor Alan Newell'
[47]January 21, 2004, Royal.gov.uk, 'Diary of engagements of the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh...'
[48]February 4, 2004, Times Online, 'Today's royal engagements'
[49]February 12, 2004, The UK Mission to the United Nations, 'Speech to Pilgrims of the United States on "A Multilateral Journey"'
[50]September 16, 2004, Chatham House, internal program list names Robert Worcester as a Pilgrim
[51]September 2004, English Speaking Union, 'Panel Discussion on the US Election'
[52]Charles Savoie, Silver Investor, 2004-2005, ‘Meet the World Money Power’-series.
[53]Kansas City Infozine, biography of Robert M. Worcester (again) confirms he is a chairman of the Pilgrims.
[54]Corporate Entertainer Magazine, 'Banking on Hospitality' (article on Rupert Hambro, year unknown)

Author: Joël van der Reijden
Original: May 3, 2005
Last update: October 14, 2006
Version: 1.9

Pilgrims Society
Incomplete membership list
continually updated

Besides the regular members, all of the persons who occupied the following positions have been made honorary members and have attended the meetings:
President of the US
UK ambassador to the US (complete)
UK secretary of state
Permanent representative of the UK to the UN
US ambassador to the UK
US secretary of state
UK consul general at NY
The head of the Episcopalian Church in the U.S. and the Archbishop of Canterbury (head Anglican church) were both vice-presidents of the Pilgrims Society in 1942. If this is always the case is unknown.
Over time newly found members will be added, just as additional biographical data. The most interesting aspects of a persons life are often also the most hidden.

Royal family members Pilgrim function Life Biography

Windsor, Queen Elizabeth Mary II


Queen of England since 1953, married to Prince Philip Mountbatten. The Queen has been, and might still be, a major stockholder in Rio Tinto and other large corporations. No official details are ever released.
[queen] ”Nobody, Paul has been as close to a member of my family as you have. There are powers at work in this country about which we have no knowledge.”
[Paul] “She wanted me to make sure my wife Maria and children remained safe. It was not a threat, it was sound advice. She had my interests at heart…No-one had never warned me like that. It made me suddenly realise the magnitude of the situation. It was obviously much, much bigger than I had ever thought.”
- The Queen and Paul Burrell in a 3-hour talk in November of 1997 at Buckinham Palace. Paul was the butler of Diana right up until her death on August 31, 1997. In January of 2001, Paul was accused of stealing some items from the Diana after her death. On November 1, 2001, the trial collapsed when the Queen herself stated that Paul had informed her of taking these items with him. (The Mirror in an interview with Paul Burrell - June 11, 2002)

Mountbatten, Prince Philip

Born in 1921 on the Isle of Corfu, Greece. Parents were evacuated from Greece after a revolution and both became depressed (father) or mentally instable (mother). Studied in Germany under Kurt Hahn and both came to Scotland in 1933. Played polo in his youth, often against Sir Evelyn de Rothschild. Philip is the Duke of Edinburgh, a Knight of the Order of the Garter, a Knight of the Order of the Thistle, Grand Master and First or Principal Knight of the Order of the British Empire, and was a prince of Greece and Denmark until he married. Patron or President of 814 organizations. His wife, Queen Elizabeth II is patron of the Pilgrims Society. Long career in the navy from the start of WWII as a midshipsman to commanding his own frigate, the HMS Magpie. William R. Denslow's 10,000 Famous Freemasons: "Philip was initiated in Navy Lodge No. 2612 of London on Dec 5, 1952. Present at the initiation were the Earl of Scarbrough, grand master, q.v., and Geoffrey Fisher, archbishop of Canterbury." Philip is a Master Mason, never having shown great interest in the organization, while his cousin, Prince Edward (b. 1935) is the grand master of the United Grand Lodge. He and his wife set off for a tour of the Commonwealth, with visits to Africa, Australia, and New Zealand in 1952. They went on to visit the remote parts of the Commonwealth in 1956. Gordon Creighton, a Foreign Service official and Intelligence officer, concluded his story about a reported 1960s UFO landing on the estate of Prince Philip with: "So there had been a landing on the estate of Mountbatten and there was Mountbatten's great interest." The entire testimony was made during an interview with the Disclosure Project in September 2000. Prince Philip supposedly had a drawer full of sketches and information on different types of UFOs. Philip co-founded the WWF International in 1961 with Julian Huxley and Prince Bernhard. He has been the long time president of WWF UK. Co-founded the 1001 Nature Trust and 1001 Club from 1971 to 1974, together with Anton Rupert and Prince Bernhard. Co-founded Population Concern in 1977 with Earnest Kleinwort, Sir Cyril Kleinwort (Pilgrims), Prince Philip, Lord Caradon, Lord Renton and Lord McCorquodale. Organized a meeting of 1001 Club members in Windsor Castle in April 1978. Co-founded the Interfaith consultations between Jews, Christians, and Muslims in 1984, together with Crown Prince Hassan of Jordan and Sir Evelyn de Rothschild at Windsor castle. In August 1988, Prince Philip said to the West German Deutsche Press Agentur: "In the event that I am reincarnated, I would like to return as a deadly virus, in order to contribute something to solve overpopulation". He wrote something along similar lines in the foreword of the 1987 book 'If I Were An Animal', written by Fleur Cowles. Philip was supposedly hostile to Diana after she divorced Charles in 1996. Mohamed Al-Fayed claimed Prince Philip had ordered Diana's murder who was killed in a car crash on August 31, 1997. Queen Elizabeth II said to Diana's butler Paul Burrell in December 1997: "Nobody, Paul has been as close to a member of my family as you have... There are powers at work in this country about which we have no knowledge." She advised him to be cautious and to lay low. Unlike his son, Charles, Philip supports genetically modified foods. On June 7, 2000, The Guardian quoted the Duke of Edinburgh as saying: "Do not let us forget we have been genetically modifying animals and plants ever since people started selective breeding." Philip is known to be the head of the family; what he says, generally goes. He is still president emeritus of the WWF International.

Laurence, Princess Anne

HRH The Princess Royal. Daughter of Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth II. Younger sister of Prince Charles. Attended a dinner of the Pilgrim Society on February 4, 2004 at 3:45 PM, Four Seasons Hotel, Hamilton Place, London. She is a member of the Order of the Garter.

Windsor, Prince Charles

Became Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Great Steward of Scotland and Knight of the Garter when Elizabeth II ascended to the throne. Studied in part under Kurt Hahn, invested as Prince of Wales in 1969, assumed a seat in the House of Lords in 1970, married Lady Diana Frances Spencer in 1981, divorced in 1996 and Diana died in a car crash in 1997, married Camilla Parker Bowles in 2005, heir to the British Throne. Anno 2005 he is listed as a member of the Advisory Board of The Pilgrims of the United States.

Windsor, Prince Andrew Edward

Third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh. When he married he was created The Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh. He currently serves as United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment.

Windsor, Prince Arthur William Patrick Albert


English prince, son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, brother of Edward VII. Trained for a military career, he served in Egypt (1882) and India (1886–1890) and as commander in chief in the Mediterranean 1907-1909. He was governor-general of Canada 1911-1916. His son, Prince Arthur of Connaught 1883-1938, was governor-general of South Africa 1920-1923.

Windor, Prince Edward

b. 1935
Duke of Kent. Brother of King George VI. Knight of the Garter. Has been vice-chairman of British Trade International and the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment. President of the British Invisibles, which these days tend to use the more official name International Financial Services, London (IFSL). Grand Master of the Order of St Michael and St George since 1967. Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England, which is the governing body of Freemasonry in England, Wales, and the Channel Islands. Photographed in the early 1960s during a Pilgrims Society diner in London, standing next to Walter Elliot, Lord Halifax, Joseph Kennedy, and Lord Derby.

Other members Pilgrim function  life Biography

Acheson, Dean Gooderham
Yale Scroll & Key 1915. Harvard 1915-1918. Private secretary to the Supreme Court Justice 1919-1921. Became Under Secretary of the Treasury in 1933. Constructed the Marshall Plan with General Marshall and Will Clayton, according to Pilgrims Society member David K.E. Bruce. U.S. Secretary of State under Harry S. Truman 1949-1953. Accused of being soft on Communism and had a dispute with General Douglas MacArthur. Mccarthy saw him as one the most dangerous Communists and believed that the "Acheson group had almost hypnotic powers over Truman." Member Council on Foreign Relations. His son, David C. Acheson ended up in the 1943 Skull & Bones class.

Acton, Lord
Born in Shropshire, England. Acton's family immigrated in 1948 to Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, where he was educated at St. George's College, Salisbury. Later he received his bachelor's and master's degrees in modern history at Trinity College, Oxford. In 1989, he took his seat in the House of Lords as the fourth Lord Acton, dividing his time between Iowa and London since his marriage to Patricia Nassif, a clinical professor at the UI College of Law. Later, the government of the United Kingdom put forth a proposal to restructure the House of Lords. This passed in November 1999, which resulted in the abolition of Acton's hereditary peerage. However, the Prime Minister appointed him as a Life Peer, and Acton returned to the House of Lords in April. Acton is also a writer whose articles have appeared in many American periodicals, including The New York Times Book Review, The North American Review, British Heritage, the Christian Science Monitor, The Chicago Tribune and The San Francisco Chronicle. In 1995, Acton and his wife wrote a book on the legal history of Iowa entitled, "To Go Free: A Treasury of Iowa's Legal Heritage," published by Iowa State University Press to commemorate Iowa's sesquicentennial. He also received the Iowa State Historical Society's Throne/Aldrich Award in 1995 for the best article on Iowa history published by The Palimpset. His articles have appeared in The Iowan and The Des Moines Register. His latest book is "A Brit Among the Hawkeyes," published by Iowa State University Press. Has spoken at the Iowa City Foreign Relations Council (ICFRC), which is in the neighborhood he often lives. He and his wife split their time between Ceder Rapids and London. He is a member of the Royal Africa Society and the Pilgrims Society. Lord Acton is writing a book about one his forefathers, Sir John Acton, who, according to him, ruled Naples and Sicily in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Adams, Charles Francis IV
Direct descendant of President John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Spent several years with his parents in St. Petersburg, Russia. Harvard College. Partner in Paine, Webber, Jackson, & Curtis banking firm 1937-1947. Director of Raytheon 1938-1942. U.S. Naval Reserve with active duty, commanding destroyer escorts in the Atlantic & Pacific theaters 1942-1945. Admitted to the staff of admiral Jonas H. Ingram, commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet 1945-1947. President of Raytheon (sales grew forty fold in his almost 40 years with the company) 1948-1960 & 1962-1964. Chairman of Raytheon 1960-1962 & 1964-1972. Retired as director of Raytheon in 1997. Director of the First National Bank of Boston, the Gillette Company, Liberty Mutual Insurance Company, Sheraton Corporation, Bath Iron Works, Associated Industries of Massachusetts, the Boston Chamber of Commerce, Pan American World Airways, and the Massachusetts Higher Education Assistance Corporation. Chairman of the Board of Visitors of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. Trustee of the Children's Hospital, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Industrial School for Crippled Children, the Massachusetts Humane Society, the Naval War College Foundation and more. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and Vice President of the Massachusetts Historical Society.

Adler, Julius Ochs
His family started the New York Times, received the Distinguished Service Cross, the Purple Heart, the Silver Star, Star with Oak Leaf Clusters, the French Legion of Honor and the French Croix de Guerre for his achievements as commander of a battalion of infantry on the Western Front in France in WWI, as a General he commanded the 77th Infantry Division, responsible for the defense of Hawaii from 1941 to 1944. After World War II, joined The New York Times as vice-president, later to become general manager, publisher of the Chattanooga Times, invited by General Eisenhower to visit the liberated concentration camps in 1945, which inspired him to write a bunch of articles on his experiences, appointed as major general in the Army Reserve in 1948.

Aiken, Alfred Lawrence
exec. committee
Graduated from Yale in 1891, president Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 1914-1917, president and chairman National Shawmut Bank of Boston 1918-1924, director New York Life Insurance Co 1924-1936, president of New York Life Insurance & Co. in 1936, trustee of Clark University and Wellesley College, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Aldrich, Herbert I.
This name was mentioned by J. Thorkelson, a U.S. Congressman from Montana, in a speech to the U.S. House of Representatives on August 20, 1940.

Aldrich, Nelson Wilmarth
Nelson W. Aldrich. Private in the Rhode Island National Guard during the American Civil War. Elected to Rhodes Island city council 1869. Rhodes Island city council president 1872-1873. Republican Congressman 1879-1881. Senator 1881-1911. His daughter marries John Davison Rockefeller, Jr. in 1901. In 1906 Aldrich is accused of taking huge bribes from corporations in an article of Cosmopolitan. Attends the Jekyll Island meeting on November 22, 1910. Chairman Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, Committee on Rules, Select Committee on Corporations Organized in the District of Columbia, Committee on Finance, and the National Monetary Commission. Aldrich worked together with co-Pilgrim and congressman/banker Edward Butterfield Vreeland to establish the Federal Reserve.

Aldrich, Winthrop Williams
Winthrop W. Aldrich was the uncle of Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller. The major stockholder in Equitable Trust Company (merged with Chase National Bank in 1930). President of Chase National Bank 1930-1934 and chairman from 1934 to 1953 (Chase National Bank eventually became Chase Manhattan and J.P. Morgan Chase; John J. McCloy took over as chair of Chase in 1953). Ambassador to England from 1950 to 1953 and gave a speech to the English Pilgrims on March 19, 1953. Director of Westinghouse Electric, American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), International Paper, Discount Corporation of New York, Metropolitan Life Insurance, and the American Society for the Control of Cancer.

Aldrich, Malcolm Pratt
born 1900
Yale Skull & Bones 1922. Cousin of Winthrop Aldrich. Head of the Commonwealth Fund.

Aldrich, Hulbert Stratton
born 1907
Cousin of Winthrop Aldrich, president of Greer School with mrs. David Rockefeller (1942/1947), vice chairman of Chemical Bank 1959-1972, director of Ametek Incorporated, IBM World Trade Corporation, Empire Savings Bank, George W. Rogers Construction Corporation, Peter Paul Incorporated, president of Commonwealth Fund (succeeded Pilgrim Edward S. Harkness), Royal Globe Insurance Group and Hill Samuel Group Limited, London.

Alexander, Charles Beatty
Grandson of a co-founder of Princeton Theological Seminary, trustee of Princeton University, married into the Crocker fortune of 40 million (1888) dollars, director of the International Banking Corporation, Mercantile Trust Company; Equitable Trust Company, Equitable Life Assurance, Society of the U.S., Tri-State Land Company, Windsor Trust, member of the Society of the Cincinnati.

Alexander, Henry Clay
Studied at Vanderbilt University and Yale where he graduated in 1923 and 1925, Trustee of Vanderbilt University, president J.P. Morgan & Company, chairman Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York in 1960, director General Motors & Johns-Manville Corporation

Anderson, Arthur Marvin
died 1966
Director of Northern Pacific Ry, director U.S. Steel Corporation, vice-chairman J.P. Morgan & Company, has a ship named after him.

Angell, Ernest
Lived from about 1890 to the 1970s, attended Harvard in 1907, New York lawyer, married Elizabeth Chapin of the American Motors fortune, national chairman of the A.C.L.U., member of the International Commission of Jurists meetings in Athens and New Delhi.

Angelson, Mark A.
Educated at Rutgers College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and at Rutgers Law School. Angelson began his career in 1975 as a lawyer with Sullivan & Cromwell. From 1982 through 1995, he practiced with Sidley & Austin, serving as Co-Chair of International Operations and Resident Managing Partner of the law firm's offices in Singapore, New York and London. During this period, he participated in the development of substantial, notably successful law practices in each of those cities, and served on the boards of various multinational companies and not-for-profit organizations. From 1996 until 2001, Mr. Angelson served in various capacities, including as Executive Deputy Chairman, at Big Flower Holdings (NYSE: BGF), a printing and advertising services holding company, and its successor, Vertis Holdings, Inc. At Big Flower, he was involved in approximately 30 printing industry acquisitions and related financings, and the $2 billion leveraged recapitalization and sale of control of the company to Thomas H. Lee Fund IV and Evercore Capital Partners. Before assuming his current position, Mr. Angelson served as Chief Executive Officer of Moore Wallace Incorporated (TSX, NYSE: MWI), the third largest printing company in North America. He was a principal architect of the merger between RR Donnelley and Moore Wallace, and of the earlier merger between Moore Corporation Limited (TSX, NYSE: MCL) and Wallace Computer Services, Inc. (NYSE: WCS). Prior to joining Moore as CEO, Mr. Angelson served as Moore's Non-Executive Chairman and Lead Independent Director. Previously, Mr. Angelson served as Deputy Chairman of Chancery Lane Capital, the New York-based private equity investment firm that led the Chancery Lane/GSC Partners L.P. investment in Moore and recruited the Moore management team. Today he is Chief Executive Officer of Chicago-based R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company (NYSE: RRD), the largest provider of printing and print-related services in the world, with approximately 43,000 employees, annual revenues of approximately $8 billion, nearly 600 locations around the globe and more than 40,000 customer relationships. The company provides these services to the catalog, retail, magazine, book, directory, advertising, financial, healthcare, telecommunications, automotive and many other industries. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (New York), a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (London), a Trustee of Northwestern University, a member of the Executive Committee of the Board of the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, and a member of the Pilgrims of Great Britain, the Yale Club of New York City, The Economic Club of Chicago, the Chicago Club and the Civic Committee of the Commercial Club of Chicago.

Annenberg, Walter H.
Son of Moses Annenberg, publisher of The Philadelphia Inquirer. The story of Moses & Max (older brother) Annenberg is a tale of a hardworking immigrants and financial geniuses who got their start working alongside violent Chicago gangsters while employed by newspaper titan William Randolph Hearst at the turn of the last century. After some time, the owner of the Tribune, Bertie McCormick, decided to hire Moses Annenberg away from Hearst. For a while, the Annenberg brothers were sending out thugs to battle each other. Fifteen years later, Max Annenberg was alleged to be an associate and friend of Chicago crime boss Al Capone. In 1924, Moses Annenberg got involved with a racing news service in Chicago and Milwaukee. Soon there were reports that those who didn't take the Annenberg race wire service were themselves the victims of beatings, fire bombings and, on occasion, murder. The crime syndicates had come to be dependent on Moses Annenberg. Without his service they couldn't operate their illegal gambling rackets. In 1938, the Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes, traveled from Washington D.C. to give a speech in Philadelphia condemning Moses Annenberg, who, at that time, was backing the Republican candidate for governor of Pennsylvania. Ickes charged it was Annenberg's violent tactics during the Chicago newspaper wars that inspired gangsters like Al Capone. Ickes said that "the hiring of Moses Annenberg by Hearst was the beginning of the subsequent flood of lawlessness that almost engulfed law enforcement in the United States." Moses, Walter, and 2 other business associates were indicted in 1939 for evading more than $2 million in taxes and another $3 million in penalties and interest. Moses was later separately indicted for conspiring to bribe a Philadelphia detective. In April 1940, Moses Annenberg agreed to plead guilty to one count -- "willfully" evading $1,217,296 -- and to pay almost $9 million in fines and penalties. In exchange for his plea the government agreed to drop all charges against his son, Walter Annenberg. In the 1940s, Walter Annenberg established Triangle Broadcasting, which at its peak controlled 6 AM radio stations, 6 FM radio stations, and 6 TV stations. He is also the founder and owner of Triangle Publications, which owned the Philadelphia Inquirer, the Daily News, TV Guide and Seventeen Magazine. Received the Alfred I. DuPont Award (Pilgrim) in 1951. Received the Marshall Field Award (Pilgrim) in 1958. Founded The Annenberg School for Communication at The University of Pennsylvania in 1958. Ambassador to England 1969-1974. During his assignment to Britain, Annenberg appointed Gorden Gray as chairman of his Triangle Broadcasting Company 1969–1975. Gray was very big in government and intelligence since 1947, the original director of the Psychological Strategy Board, and a heir to the R.J. Reynolds fortune. Annenberg founded The Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California in 1971. In 1988, News Corp. acquired Triangle Publications, including TV Guide. Founder-trustee and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California. Annenberg also served as Trustee of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships and the Winston Churchill Traveling Fellowships. He was Emeritus Trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, The University of Pennsylvania and The Peddie School. Annenberg received honorary degrees from many international universities. Annenberg was named Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II. He was also named Officer of the French Legion of Honor, and presented with the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy. (received dozens of other awards and honors) He was a member of the Associated Press, the American Society of Newspaper Editors, International Press Institute, National Press Club, Overseas Press Club, American Newspaper Publishers Association, Sigma Delta Chi, the International Arts-Medicine Association, and the Inter-American Press Association. Has been awarded by the ADL. A former Commander of the United States Naval Reserve, Annenberg also was a member of the Navy League of the U.S. He also has his own foundation, the Annenberg Foundation. Walter Annenberg was a generous philanthropist who gave millions to universities, art museums, charities and PBS. He was a friend to kings and presidents. Member of the Pilgrims Society and the 1001 Club.

Armour, Norman
Embassy secretary at Petrograd (then the capital of Russia) 1916-1918, ambassador to Haiti 1932-1935, Canada 1935-1938, Chile 1938-1939, Argentina 1939-1944, Spain 1945, Venezuela 1950-1951 and Guatemala 1954-1955. Married European nobility in the form of Princess Myra Kondacheff, member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Armstrong, Anne Legendre
Born in New Orleans. Daughter of an aristocratic New Orleans coffee merchant. Graduated from Vassar College. She married Tobin Armstrong, a Texas cattle rancher, in 1950, whom she met in 1942 on the 825,000 acre King Ranch. The King Ranch has been home to many international power elites including Prince Charles and Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis. Tobin was close friends with the Bushes. She served as vice chairman of the Texas Republican Party from 1966 to 1968. In 1971 and 1972, she was cochairman of the Republican National Committee. As counselor to the President, Armstrong was a member of the president's Domestic Council, the Council on Wage and Price Stability, and the Commission on the Organization of Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy. First American woman ambassador to Great Britain from 1976 to 1977. In 1977, Prince Charles visited the Armstrong Ranch to play polo with Anne's husband. Director of American Express (with Henry Kissinger and Vernon Jordan), Boise Cascade, General Motors, and Halliburton (with Cheney). She chaired the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board from 1982 to 1990 and was a trustee of Southern Methodist University and the Smithsonian Institution. She also chaired the Georgetown University's Center for Strategic and International Studies advisory board.

Astor, William Waldorf
Educated in Germany and in Italy and at the Columbia law school, member of the NY state assembly 1878-1879, senator 1880-1881, minister to Italy 1881–1885, heir to about 100 million dollars, reversed the family immigration by returning to England in 1890 and bought some large real estate, purchased the Pall Mall Gazette 1893, purchased the London Sunday Observer 1911, was made a baron in 1916 and a viscount (of Hever) in 1917, his elder son became leader of Tory democracy, his younger son bought a large share in The Times of London. His son, Waldorf Astor (unconfirmed Pilgrims member), was a chairman of the Royal Institute for International Affairs from 1935 to 1949 and had helped to establish it.

Astor, William Vincent
Heir of the John Jacob Astor fortune, Franklin D. Roosevelt supporter in 1932, New Deal supporter after WWII, director of Chase National Bank, Western Union Telegraph Company, Great Northern Railway Company, the United States Lines, New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital and other institutions and corporations, trustee of the New York Public Library and the New York Zoological Society, governor of New York Hospital, staff officer in the Navy during both World Wars, seemed to have a bit of competition from the English branch of the family. (He and his former wives had themselves or married to Huntingtons and Whitneys)

Astor, (Roberta) Brooke Russell
Daughter of USMC General John Henry Russell, wife of Vincent Astor, president Vincent Astor Foundation from 1959 and on, which gave away about 195 million in all, author of 2 fiction books.

Astor, Francis David Langhorne
Educated at Eton College he went on to Oxford University where he suffered a nervous breakdown and left university in 1933 without obtaining a degree, psycho-analyzed by Anna Freud, at Oxford in 1931 he met Adam von Trott zu Solz, later executed for the role he played in a failed assassination of Hitler, who had a lot of influence on him, during World War II David Astor was wounded in France, In 1936, he joined the Yorkshire Post newspaper where he worked for a year then joined his father's newspaper, The Observer where he would serve as editor for 27 years, He warned of the dangers of big government and of big business, influenced by his friend and employee of The Observer, George Orwell, he supposedly was anti-big government, very critical of corrupt politicians, pro-blacks, pro-life, etc, in 1977 The Observer was sold to Robert O. Anderson, the American owner of the Atlantic Richfield oil company. (had lots of aggressive competition)

Astor, Gavin
2nd Baron Astor of Hever, controlling shareholder Times Publishing Co. Ltd. This company controlled the The Times Book Co. Ltd., Issuing House Year Book Ltd., St. Paul's Engineering Ltd., The Review (Insurance) Ltd., The Times Pension Trusts Ltd., The Times London Incorporated. and The Gardeners' Chronicle Ltd. Director Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1952-1959, chairman Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1959-1966.

Astor, John Jacob, 8th
Better known under 3rd Baron Astor of Hever, educated at Eton College, Birkshire (England), Lieutenant in 1966 in the service of the The Life Guards, managing director of Honon et Cie in 1982, managing director of Astor France in 1989, Deputy Lieutenant of Kent in 1996, Chief Whip of the House of Lords 1998. Freemason.

Attlee, Clement Richard
Educated at Oxford, he was called to the bar in 1905. His early experience as a social worker in London's East End led to his decision to give up law and devote his life to social improvement through politics. In 1907 he joined the Fabian Society and soon afterward the Labour party. He was a lecturer in social science at the London School of Economics, and, after service in World War I, he became (1919) the first Labour mayor of Stepney. Attlee entered Parliament in 1922. In 1927 he visited India as a member of the Simon commission and was converted to views that strongly favored Indian self-government. He joined the Labour government in 1930 but resigned in 1931 when Ramsay MacDonald formed the National government. As leader of the Labour party from 1935, Attlee was an outspoken critic of Conservative foreign policy, objecting particularly to the government's failure to intervene in the Spanish civil war. During World War II he served (1940–45) in Winston Churchill's coalition cabinet, and on Labour's electoral victory in 1945 he became prime minister. Under Attlee's leadership, the Bank of England, the gas, electricity, coal, and iron and steel industries, and the railways were nationalized. His government also enacted considerable social reforms, including the National Health Service. Independence was granted to Burma (Myanmar), India, Pakistan, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and Palestine, and Britain allied itself closely with the United States in the cold war confrontation with the Soviet Union. The postwar economic crisis required stringent economic and financial controls, which reduced support for the government. Labour won the 1950 general election by a narrow margin, but in 1951, Attlee decided to go to the country again and was defeated. He was leader of the opposition until his retirement in 1955, when he received the title of Earl Attlee.

Bache, Jules Semon
American banker and art collector who made an enormous fortune on Wallstreet, organized the banking firm of J. S. Bache and Company, president and treasurer of Dome Mines Limited, director of Chrysler, Lake Superior Railroad, Louisiana Oil Refining, Tennessee Copper & Chemical, Southern Agricultural Company, U.S. Industrial Alcohol Company, New River Collieries, Cuba Distilling, American Indemnity, Anniston City Land, New Amsterdam Casualty, Ann Arbor Railroad, Empire Trust Company and others, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Bail, Ancell H.
This name was mentioned by J. Thorkelson, U.S. Congressman from Montana, in a speech to the U.S. House of Representatives on August 20, 1940. More info is not available.

Baker, George Fisher
Harvard. Fortune of the Baker family estimated at 500 million in 1924 and later grew to about a billion dollars. Chairman of Manhattan's First National Bank, First Security Co., and had directorships in at least 50 other companies. Close associate of J.P. Morgan who wanted him on every board of the companies he financed. Trustee of the Frick Collection (Frick was an associate of Andrew Mellon and was waging a war on his slave-workers). Donated $2,000,000 to Henry Pomeroy Davison (Pilgrim) when he needed money for Red Cross work during WWI. One of the largest philanthropist ever and never appeared in public.

Baker, George Fisher III
Great-grandson of the wealthy banker George Fisher Baker, Harvard, general partner of Baker, Nye Investments L.P. in New York City, member Woods Hole Oceanographic, member, director of The American Institute for Cognitive Therapy, director Quebec-Labrador Foundation/Atlantic Center for the Environment (QLF), philanthropist. Honorary trustee of the World Conservation Society, together with the Astors, Rockefellers, Phipps, Cullmans, and Schiffs.

Baker, James Addison III
Graduated from Princeton University in 1952. Ivy Club. Attended Cap & Gown events, according to Kay Griggs, just as Allen Dulles, William Colby, Frank Carlucci, James Baker, George Griggs, and George P. Shultz (August 3, 2005, Rense). Houston lawyer. Friend of the Bushes. Undersecretary of commerce 1975–1976. Deputy manager of the 1976 and 1980 Ford and Bush presidential campaigns. Joined the Reagan administration in 1981. White House chief of staff 1981–1985. Treasury secretary 1985–1988. Attended the Fourth World Wilderness Conference in 1987, together with David Rockefeller, Edmund de Rothschild, and Maurice Strong. Planned the 1988 campaign that won George H.W. Bush the presidency. Secretary of State 1989–1992. Member National Security Planning Group. Played a prominent role in the Gulf crisis and the subsequent search for a Middle East peace settlement. Again White House Chief of Staff 1992-1993. United Nations special envoy to try and broker a peace settlement for the disputed territory of Western Sahara 1997. As an adviser to George W. Bush in the November 2000 presidential elections, he was influential in helping Bush secure the presidency by manoeuvring the disputed vote count in Florida to the Republican-leaning Supreme Court. Baker was the manager of the foreign debts of occupied Iraq since 2003. Senior counselor for the Carlyle Group and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Also a member of the Atlantic Council of the United States, the Bohemian Grove, and the Pilgrims Society. Honorary trustee of the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies.

Ball, George Wildman
Born on December 19, 1909 in Des Moines, Iowa. Grew up in Des Moines and Evanston, Illinois, where the family moved in 1922 after his father received a promotion to the Standard Oil Company headquarters located in Chicago. Graduated at the top of his class from Northwestern Law School in 1933. The law school dean nominated him for a position in the General Counsel's Office, under the direction of Herman Oliphant, in the newly established Farm Credit Administration. Ball moved to the Treasury Department in November 1933 upon the appointment of Henry Morgenthau (Pilgrims) as Secretary of the Treasury. When Franklin D. Roosevelt named Morgenthau to this post, Morgenthau brought along Oliphant as his legal advisor, and he, in turn, brought along Ball. Worked here from 1933-1935. Despite working on major New Deal policies, Ball felt his law training was lacking and returned to the Midwest in 1935 to "master the profession of law." He joined a Chicago law firm where he served as a tax attorney before moving to the prestigious firm of Sidley, McPherson, Austin & Harper in 1939. Ball's work involved the reorganization of railroads but more defining was the close relationship he developed with junior partner Adlai Stevenson while at the firm. It was also during this time that Ball started to become interested in foreign affairs. He began to attend Friday luncheons hosted by the Chicago Council on Foreign Affairs, which Stevenson chaired. Associate position in the General Counsel's Office of the Lend-Lease Administration under the guidance of Oscar Cox 1942-1944. Director of the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey in London 1944-1945. Ball was specifically responsible for assessing the effectiveness of the Allied bombing of German cities and transportation systems. In May 1945, Ball and John Kenneth Galbraith debriefed Albert Speer, the Nazi minister for armaments and war production, in an effort to confirm their speculations on the ineffectiveness of Allied bombings. Ball was awarded a Medal of Freedom for this work. General Counsel for the French Supply Council in Washington 1945-1946. Ball was finally able to join his firm, Cleary, Gottlieb, Friendly & Cox in July 1946. Monnet retained the firm to represent the French Government, and Ball soon found himself conferring with Monnet's deputy Robert Marjolin on the creation of the Worked for Jean Monnet at the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) in 1947, creating a plan to promote the Marshall Aid in the US. He continued to work with Monnet on establishing a European economic plan throughout 1949, and this preliminary work laid the foundation for the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). After the ratification of the Treaty of Paris in August 1952, Ball was retained as the ECSC's adviser and later served as an adviser to the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC). Talked Adlai Stevenson into running for president twice and acted as his campaign advisor (James P. Warburg was one of his aides). Attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and became part of its steering committee. Still attended Bilderberg in 1993, the year before his death. Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs under JFK 1961-1962. Under Secretary of State 1962-1966. In his new position, Ball worked on issues regarding trade and tariffs, economic affairs, the Congo, and European integration. He worked closely with Secretary of State Dean Rusk (Rhodes Scholar; Pilgrims; chair Rockefeller Foundation; SMOM) and dealt directly with the President on these matters. Very much opposed to the Vietnam war and decided to resign because of it in 1966. Partner in Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb 1966-1968. Served as chair of the committee investigating the U.S.S. Pueblo incident in 1968. Permanent U.S. representative to the United Nations 1968. Fearing a Nixon victory in the presidential election, Ball resigned in September to campaign for his friend Hubert Humphrey. Senior managing director and partner in Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb 1969-1982. Chairman of the in 1975 launched Washington Institute for the Study of Conflict (WISC), of which its English branch stood in close contact with Le Cercle. Unofficial advisor to Jimmy Carter 1977-1981. Co-founder of the The American Austrian Foundation in 1984, together with Pilgrims Society members Cyrus Vance, John E. Leslie, and David Rockefeller. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, and Pilgrims Society. Wrote a couple of books and articles on foreign affairs. His son, Alan Ball, is said to have been an MI5 operative and was a chairman of Tiny Rowland's Lonrho. Rowland worked with loads of Middle-Eastern terrorists, was a member of Le Cercle, and had MI6 agents like Nicholas Elliott on his board. In the 1990 book 'One Nation under Israel', Ball is quoted as having said: "When leading members of the American Jewish community give [Israel’s] government uncritical and unqualified approbation and encouragement for whatever it chooses to do, while striving so far as possible to overwhelm any criticism of its actions in Congress and in the public media, they are, in my view, doing neither themselves nor the U.S. a favor…They’ve got one thing going for them. Most people are terribly concerned not to be accused of being anti-Semitic, and the lobby so often equates criticism of Israel with anti-Semitism. They keep pounding away at that theme, and people are deterred from speaking out."

Barber, Charles Finch
CEO of American Smelting & refining, director Americas Society, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Barco, James William
born 1916
American ambassador to the United Nations 1960-1961, vice-chairman Atlantic Council of the United States, trustee American University in Cairo, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Barlow, Sir Clement Anderson Montague
Parliamentary Secretary of Labor. Involved with British empire building.

Barratt, J. Arthur
Organized the St. Louis World Fair and became Director General of the Pan American Union in Washington, the building for which was provided by Pilgrim Society member Andrew Carnegie.

Bartlett, Edmund
Chairman Schroder’s Limited NY.

Bayne, Stephen F., Jr
Married Lucie Culver Gould in 1934, appeared on 1969 Pilgrims list. Possibly a bishop.

Beck, James M.
Graduated Moravian College in Bethlehem. After an apprenticeship in law he was admitted to the bar in 1884 and entered the law office of William F. Harrity, with whom he formed a law partnership in 1891. Admitted to the bar of New York City in 1903, and in 1922 to the bar of England, he rose to be one of America's leading corporate lawyers. Assistant United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania 1888-1892, United States Attorney 1896-1900, joined the New York law firm of Shearman and Sterling, continued his law practices in New York, Philadelphia and Washington until 1921, appointed Solicitor General of the U.S. 1921-1925. As a Congressman he was the leading spokesman in the campaign against Prohibition and he tried to fight the principles and legislation of the New Deal. Reelected three consecutive times, he resigned in 1934. Beck was one of the first Americans to make a case for the Entente, the alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia prior to World War I. His most famous book, "The Constitution of the United States" (1924), sold over fifty thousand copies.

Bell, Elliott V.
Reporter for The New York Times when the great depression hit in 1929, trustee Brookings Institution, director of Chase Manhattan Bank, treasurer Council on Foreign Relations 1952-1964, director Council on Foreign Relations 1953-1966, vice president and trustee John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation 1965-1972, chairman McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, editor and publisher Business Week.

Belmont, August, Jr.
He was a son of August Belmont, the Rothschild agent who funded the North during the American civil war. The younger August Belmont was an 1875 graduate of Harvard University, served as director of the National Park Bank, and was an avid thoroughbred racing fan (owned Man O'War, one of the most famous race horses). Following the United States' entry into World War I, Belmont, at age 65, volunteered to assist and was sent to France by the U.S. Army. His widow Eleanor Robson Belmont died at 100 in 1979.

Benkard, Franklin Bartlett
He was graduated in 1925 at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, with his A.B. degree. He was graduated in 1928 at Colombia Law School with his L.L.B. degree. Joined Kelly Drye Newhall & Maginnis, New York in 1925. He was made a partner with Kelly Drye & Warren in 1941. He was director and treasurer of the Julliard School of Music from 1941 to 1977. He was appointed Associate Government Appeal Agent in 1944 Government Appeal Agent in 1945. He was in the Coast Guard Reserve patrolling the docks in New Jersey at night. After 1950, he became active in Head of the Harbor and did much to presence the zoning regulations. He was director of the Midnight Mission Society (an organization who helped 'unfortunate girls' i.e. unwed mothers). He was a member of: The Century Association Knickerbocker Club Bar, the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, the American Bar Association, and the New York State Bar Association. Also a member of Holland Lodge No. 8 F. and A.M., the New York State Society of the Cincinnati, the Pilgrims of the United States, St Nicholas Society of the City of New York, and the Society of the Mayflower Descendants.

Bennet, Courtenay Walter
British Consul at New York in 1908.

Benton, William
Graduated from Yale University in 1921, part-time vice president of the University of Chicago 1937-1945, chairman Encyclopedia Britannica 1943-1973, assistant Secretary of State 1945-1947 (active in organizing the United Nations), Democrat senator 1949-1953, United States ambassador to (United Nations) UNESCO in Paris 1963-1968, trustee of University of Chicago, trustee of several schools and colleges.

Beresford, Charles William de la Poer
Baron. Became a Navy commander in 1875. Sat in Parliament as a Conservative 1875-1880. Bombarded Alexandria, Egypt in 1882. Aide-de-camp to the Prince of Wales 1875-1876. Accompanying him on a visit to India, became a close personal friend of King Edward VII. Again in Parliament 1885-1888 and resigned under protest, authored “The Break-up of China” (1899), his brother was Military Attaché at the British Embassy in Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1898-1903. In 1897 Beresford was promoted to rear-admiral and again entered Parliament, this time representing York. He retained this seat until 1900, although he spent much of his time in China representing the Associated Chambers of Commerce, and from 1900 onwards was second in command of the Mediterranean fleet. He returned to Parliament in 1902, this time for Woolwich, but resigned in 1906 when he was promoted to admiral and appointed chief of the Channel Fleet. He was in command of the Mediterranean Fleet from 1905 until 1907. The first Pilgrim dinner in New York was held in his honor.

Bernstein, Leonard
A well-known musical conductor, spoke these words about the 1963 Kennedy assassination on November 24, 1980, as written down by the Associated Press: "We don’t dare confront the implications. I think we’re all agreed there was a conspiracy and we don’t want to know. It involves such a powerful high force in what we call the high places, if we do know, everything might fall apart."

Bertron, Samuel Reading
Yale Skull & Bones 1885. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Vice president United States Guaranty Trust. In June 1917, during WWI, Pilgrims Society member Elihu Root was sent to Russia by President Wilson to arrange American co-operation with the new revolutionary government. Samuel R. Bertron went with him. Chairman of the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce.

Berwind, Edward J.
Chairman Berwind-White Coal Mining Company. During his years at the helm of Berwind-White Coal Mining, Berwind was closely associated with J.P. Morgan in the consolidation, reorganization, integration, and expansion of his coal operations. Berwind was reputed to be the world's largest individual owner of coal mining properties. Berwind also was considered a hard-driving businessman. He refused to bargain with employees, and his mines were the last bastions of the open shop in the coal fields.

Biddle, David H.

Biddle, Francis Beverly
Secretary to Associate Justice O. W. Holmes 1912. Became a successful corporation lawyer. Chairman National Labor Relations Board 1934-1935. Director Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia 1938-1939. Appellate judge National Labor Relations Board 1939-1940. Attorney General of U.S. 1941-1945. U.S. judge for the trial of war criminals at Nuremberg 1945-1946.

Biddle, Anthony J. Drexel, Jr.
Attended the Saint Paul's School in New Hampshire and later Temple University. Rose in rank from private to captain during WWI. Minister to Norway 1934-1937. Ambassador to Poland in 1937. Deputy ambassador to France after the Germans started invading Poland. US Ambassador to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Greece, Luxembourg, and Yugoslavia, who were in exile in London (considered to be one of the most important jobs during WWII) 1941-1944. In this position he became a good friend of Prince Bernhard. Executive Intelligence Review wrote: "The U.S. diplomat, Ambassador Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr., wrote to President Roosevelt from London on Jan. 7, 1942, describing a clique which controlled the fascist Vichy government of France, the government which (more or less) ruled that country everywhere south of the German zone of direct occupation. "This group," he said, "should be regarded not as Frenchmen, any more than their corresponding numbers in Germany should be regarded as Germans, for the interests of both groups are so intermingled as to be indistinguishable; their whole interest is focussed upon furtherance of their industrial and financial stakes. Ambassador Biddle went on to detail the proof that the "Banque Worms clique" controlled most parts of the Vichy government, with a special emphasis on total control over all economic and related portfolios. On paper, Banque Worms had been established earlier by the Lazard Frères bank of Paris, on behalf of the Worms family of industrialists. In reality, the closely integrated Lazard Brothers bank of London, Lazard Frères of Paris, and Lazard Freres of Wall Street, had established Banque Worms as a "cutout," a vehicle through which top financier families could deploy the forces of the Synarchy." Resumed active duty in the Army as a Lt. Colonel, rising to the rank of Brigadier General in 1951. During those years he worked closely with General Eisenhower as deputy chief of SHAEF and as a representative to EUCOM and SHAPE. The 1950s found Biddle serving as Adjutant General of the State of Pennsylvania. Member numerous Pennsylvania state boards and commissions, and as a trustee at Temple University. In 1961 President John F. Kennedy chose Biddle for his last diplomatic position, that of Ambassador to Spain, where he served until his death.

Bigelow, Robert W.

Bingham, Robert Worth
A member of a North Carolina family of aristocratic pretensions. Robert Worth Bingham rose to great heights as a newspaper publisher, political leader, philanthropist, and ambassador to Great Britain (1933-1937), but his life is surrounded by controversy to this day. Charges that he contributed to the death of his second wife (the richest widow alive at the time - of magnate Henry Flagler), an heiress whose bequest of five million dollars helped purchase the Louisville Courier-Journal and Times, followed him to the grave. For three quarters of a century the history of the Bingham family of Louisville, Kentucky, has been one of tragedy and controversy as well as wealth, power, and prestige. The breakup of the Bingham dynasty in 1986, vividly chronicled on CBS television's "Sixty Minutes" generated a flurry of books and articles on Bingham and his family, much of it portraying Bingham as a villain. In some accounts, Bingham drove his first wife to suicide and gave syphilis to the second before murdering her to gain control of her inheritance. Member American Bar Association; Society of Colonial Wars; Society of the Cincinnati; Sons of the American Revolution; Alpha Tau Omega; Phi Beta Kappa.

Bingham, Thomas Henry
After the 1992 collapse of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), Lord Bingham of Cornhill was appointed to head an official inquiry into why the Bank of England failed to find out about the massive drug laundering going on at this bank. Bingham and a U.S. Senate inquiry castigated the Bank of England for its failures of supervision, but didn't conclude anything was done on purpose. Bingham was a member of the Privy Council since 1986, chairman Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts since 1994, trustee Pilgrim Trust (founded by Pilgrim Edward S. Harkness in 1930), president Seckford Foundation, member Advisory Council on Public Records, the Magna Carta Trust and the British Records Association, Lord Chief Justice of Great Britain 1996-2000. In 2002 wanted to legalize Cannabis. Became a member of the Order of the Garter in 2005.

Bissell, Pelham Saint George
President of the Sons of the Revolution, council of the Society of Colonial Wars, past commander, American Legion, Judge Advocate, Veterans of Foreign Wars and member of the League of Nations, served on the legislative committee of the Citizens' Union, vice-chairman of the Mayor's Fraternal Committee in 1922, president Justice of the New York Municipal Court 1934-1943.

Black, Eugene Robert
Yale Phi Beta Kappa. Officer in the U.S. Navy in the Atlantic during WWI. Vice-president Chase National Bank. President Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta 1928-1934. Chairman Federal Reserve System 1933-1934. President World Bank 1949-1962. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Visitor of Bilderberg. Trustee Ford Foundation in 1967. Chairman Brookings Institution 1962-1968. Chairman Per Jacobsson Foundation in the 1960s. Other chairman were Randolph Burgess and Marcus Wallenberg. Some other directors of the Per Jacobsson Foundation in the late 1960s to early 1970s were Viscount Harcourt (Pilgrims; IMF; World Bank; chair Morgan Grenfell & Co.), Gabriel Hauge (Pilgrims; chair Manufacturers Hanover Trust; treasurer CFR; Bilderberg steering committee) Herman J. Abs (chair Deutsche Bank), MarinusW. Holtrop (chair BIS and the Nedelandse Bank); Lord Salter (Privy Council; League of Nations), Lord Cobbeld (Privy Council; Bank of England), David Rockefeller (Pilgrims), Allen Sproul (Pilgrims; NY Fed), Maurice Frère (BIS; Sofina; Banque Nationale de Belgique; family today owns Frère-Bourgeois Group), Albert E. Janssen (Chair Société Belge de Banque), Jean Monnet (founder European Union), Samuel Schweizer (chair Swiss Bank Corporation), and others.

Bobst, Elmer Holmes
Re-organizer and head of the The American Cancer Society beginning in 1944. Chairman of Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical, CEO of the New Jersey pharmaceutical giant Warner Chilcott, and considered an architect of the modern pharmaceutical industry. He has also been the president of La Roche, a pharmaceutical company he admitted was involved in illegally selling morphine to the underworld. In the seventies, Pope John Paul II Center for Prayer and Study for Peace was located on his estate. Directors of this center were Kurt Waldheim (Secretary General of the United Nations, ex-nazi war criminal, friend of Arnold Schwarzenegger), Cyrus Vance (Secretary of State, Pilgrim) and J. Peter Grace (Pilgrim, head of the Knights of Malta in the United States). Bobst himself was a member of the Knights of Malta. Bobst once wrote to his close friend Richard Nixon (who started the 'War on Cancer' in 1971), "If this beloved country of ours ever falls apart, the blame rightly should be attributed to the malicious action of Jews." Bobst's granddaughters and great-granddaughters have accused him of sexually abusing them. All this didn't prevent that a huge library would be named after him.

Bonn, Philip Edward Leo Africa
b. 1964
His father, Christopher, was an Extra Equerry to HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, (after whom he named his son and heir - Philip). He was an Adjutant of Eton College, a courtier, accomplished polo player, and Freeman of The City of London.
Philip was born in 1964. 10th in descent from King Charles II of the Stuart dynasty, who came to power in 1660 after Oliver Cromwell and son. Lineal descendant of the 1st Duke of Richmond, KG, and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Earls of Albemarle, KG. 12th in descent from "good king" Henry IV de Bourbon of France (1553-1610), a Huguenot pacifist who was assassinated by catholic extremists. Christened on March 25, 1964 at the Church of Our Most Holy Redeemer and St. Thomas More, Chelsea, by The Very Reverend Canon Alfonso de Zulueta, MA, 5th Count of Torre Diaz. He was Christened Philip; his Patronal Saint being his ancestor St Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, (who died in the Tower of London, 19th October 1595), the eldest son of Thomas, (4th) Duke of Norfolk. Educated at Moreton Hall RC Preparatory School, Eton College, and the University of Cambridge. Became interested in charitable endeavour and has also initiated several projects in the worlds of art and architectural design. Formerly a member of The Gala Committee for HM The Queen's Golden Jubilee. Advisor to The Royal House of Al-Saud. Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society. Officer of the British Red Cross. Strategic advisor to several major international institutions, and a specialist in governmental relations. Founding national chairman of the BRCS Queen Mother Memorial Fund in March 2002. The fund was set up to raise money for the British Red Cross international tracing and message service, which helps restore contact between families separated by war and disaster. Decorated with the medal of the Lebanese Red Cross in 2005. Invested as a Cavaliere dell'Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro (knight of the Royal Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus) by HRH Crown Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples and Duke of Savoy (family came to power in a united Italy in 1863, and banned the Bourbon Kings of the Two Sicilies; family exiled from Italy after WWII; Carlo d'Amelio, a Rome attorney who oversaw the financial holdings of the House of Savoy, and, according to some accounts, also of the Pallavicini family, sat on the board of Permindex, the company suspected of having played a key role in the JFK assassination of 1963; head of the House of Savoy since 1983; anti-semitic; murdered a person, but was later acquitted; involvement in arms dealing on behalf of the Shah of Iran; member of the outlawed P2 lodge; officer in the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM); patron of the Augustan Society, together with Otto von Habsburg; claims the title King of Jerusalem; had a 20-minute audience with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican right after the House of Savoy was allowed back into Italy in November 2002; punched his cousin and arch-rival Amadeo of Savoy, duke of Aosta, twice in his face at a 2004 dinner given by King Juan Carlos of Spain, which was held on the eve of the wedding of his son Felipe) on 4th November 2002 and was subsequently invested by His Royal Highness, in the presence of The Grand Chancellor, HRH Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Prince of Piedmont, in The Palais de Savoie, Aix-Le-Bain, France, on 25th March 2004. Duke of Norfolk Memorial Librarian. Formerly private secretary to the right reverend Monsignor Alfred Newman Gilbey. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary to the Pope. Member of the Vatican Library by special appointment of his eminence Jorge Maria, Cardinal Mejia, titular Archbishop of Apollonia. Appointed as Knight President, the Admiral the Viscount Keppel Naval Association of Great Britain in 2005. Delegate of Great Britain to Der Osterreicherischen Marine Verband in 2005. Invested as an honorary member of the Naval Association of His Imperial Highness Admiral Archduke Franz Ferdinand in the Hall of Glory in The Military Museum, Vienna, Austria, on 6th December 2005. Invested as a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA) in 2006. Descendant life-member of the Association of the Descendants of the Knights of the Garter. Life member of the Royal Stuart Society. Hereditary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers (founded 1272). Member of The Pilgrims Society of Great Britain.

Boron, Robert Lew

Boucher, Richard A.
He entered the Foreign Service in 1977. After studying Chinese, he served from 1979 to 1980 at the U.S. Consulate General in Guangzhou. In Washington he then worked in the State Department's Economic Bureau and on the China Desk, and returned to China with his wife from 1984 to 1986 as Deputy Principal Officer at the U.S. Consulate General in Shanghai. Upon his return to Washington in July 1986, he served as a Senior Watch Officer in the State Department's Operations Center. From August 1987 to March 1989, he worked as Deputy Director of the Office of European Security and Political Affairs. He started as Deputy Press Spokesman for the State Department under Secretary Baker in March 1989 and became Spokesman under Secretary Eagleburger in August 1992. Secretary Christopher asked him to continue as Spokesman until June 1993. United States Ambassador to Cyprus from 1993 to 1996. United States Consul General in Hong Kong 1996-1999. Spoke to the Asia Society on March 24, 1998. US Senior Official for APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, since July 1999. Spoke to the London Pilgrims on November 28, 2002. Has repeatedly condemned Israel's practice of killing terrorists and instead called for negotiations to settle the Palestinian-Israeli dispute. Supported the 2003 war against Iraq because it wasn't cooperating with the sactions. Member of the Bohemian Grove.

Brandi, Frederic H.
Father was a top coal executive in the German Steel Trust. Moved from Germany to the United States in 1926. CEO of Dillon, Read & Co. in the 1950s and 1960s, up until 1971. He was replaced by Nicholas Brady of the Bohemian Grove Mandalay camp at that time. Brandi was also a member of the Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay.

Brandt, Mortimer
Sources: September 9, 1993, The Baltimore Sun, obituary
Born in New York, he was educated at home and began his business career with the General Motors Acceptance Corp. in the 1920s. Later joined Credit Alliance Corp. and was sent in 1927 to Toronto, where he established the Credit Alliance Corp. of Canada. It was while he was living in Canada that Brandt began collecting paintings. He finally left his job and returned to New York, where he enrolled in a fine arts program at New York University. Managed the Mortimer Brandt Gallery on 57th Street in Manhattan 1937-1969. Founding trustee of the Association for Advancement of American Art. Trustee of the Shaker Museum in Old Chatham, N.Y. Founding president of Cancer Care in New York from 1952 to 1957. Trustee for the Showcase for the Disabled and a delegate to the Welfare and Health Council of New York City. Member of the Pilgrims Society and was a past member of the Sunningdale Golf Club in England, the American Club and the Arts Club. Moved to London in 1969. Went back to the US in 1983. Died in 1993.

Brewster, Kingman, Jr.
Graduated from Yale in 1941, where he was chairman of the Yale Daily News. His junior year, he turned down an offer of membership in Skull and Bones. Brewster's first job in 1941 was as a special assistant in the governmental office of Nelson Rockefeller. In 1948, he received his law degree from Harvard Law School. After teaching at Harvard Law School from 1950 to 1960, he accepted the post of Provost at Yale, serving from 1960 to 1963. President of Yale from 1963 to 1977. His presidency was marked by the Black Panther trial and the admission of women as undergraduates. After leaving Yale, he served as U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James ( the United Kingdom) from 1977 to 1981 and later was Master of University College, Oxford, serving from 1986 until his death there in 1988. He was a member of the Century Association and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Brownlie, Ian G.M.
He graduated from St. Paul’s School in Garden City, N.Y., and the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey. In 1962, he earned an M.B.A. from NYU’s Business School. Brownlie served in the Marine Corps from 1954–56 and retired from the Marine Corps Reserve as a captain. Professionally, he worked in real estate, specializing in commercial leasing, beginning his career with Brown, Harris & Stevens and was later affiliated with the Joseph F. Bernstein Co. He became a principal with Wm. A. White & Sons, which became Wm. A. White/Tishman East and was subsequently sold to Grubb & Ellis. Brownlie was a member of the Gardiner’s Bay Country Club, Shelter Island Yacht Club, the Union League Club of New York, St. Anthony Hall of New York, Inc., and the Pilgrims of the United States. He was active in politics in the Village of Dering Harbor, Inc., serving in various capacities — trustee, deputy mayor, and mayor (1970–98).

Bryce, Viscount James
In 1886 he was made under secretary for foreign affairs; in 1892 he joined the cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; in 1894 he was President of the Board of Trade, and acted as chairman of the royal commission on secondary education; and in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet in 1905 he was made chief secretary for Ireland; but in February 1907 he was appointed British ambassador at Washington, D.C. (until 1913) and took leave of party politics, his last political act being a speech outlining what was then the government scheme for university reform in Dublin, a scheme which was promptly discarded by his successor Augustine Birrell. Wrote a few books including "The American Commonwealth" (1888). In 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed. Meanwhile his academic honours from home and foreign universities multiplied, and he became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1894. In earlier life he was a notable mountain-climber, ascending Mount Ararat in 1876, and publishing a volume on Transcaucasia and Ararat in 1877; in 1899-1901 he was president of the Alpine Club. He was ennobled in 1914, becoming 1st Viscount Bryce. Following the outbreak of the First World War, Lord Bryce was appointed by Herbert Asquith to report on alleged German atrocities in Belgium. The report was published in 1915, and was damning of German behavior; Lord Bryce's reputation in America was important in influencing American opinion toward Germany before their entry into the war. Bryce was acquainted with the Vanderbilts, and had detailed documents about the 1915 Armenian extermination by the Turks. (Some have argued in the past century that these local tension were exploited by Grand Orient Masons, as to give the French Rothschilds unhampered access to the Baku oil fields.)

Bristol, Lee Hastings
Clergyman, vice-president (in 1932) and president of Bristol-Myers Inc., president of the Association of National Advertisers.

Brittain III, Alfred
Director Bankers Trust Company Director since 1966, chairman of the board of Bankers Trust New York Corporation and Bankers Trust Company 1975-1987, member of the Audit, Compensation and Corporate Employee Investment Committees, trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Brittain, Sir Harry
co-founder & chairman
Educated at Repton and Worcester College, Oxford, where he obtained a BA and an MA in law. Called to the Bar in 1897 but only practiced for a week before retiring from law in favour of business and journalism. Worked on the staff of both the Standard and the Evening Standard. Co-founded the Pilgrims Society in London and New York in 1902 and 1903, and became the first chairman of the UK Pilgrims. Secretary to Sir C. Arthur Pearson, owner of the Evening Standard. Worked with Pearson in the formation of the Tariff Reform League in 1903. The aims of the Commission were to examine and report on Chamberlains's fiscal proposals and their probable effects on British trade and industries. Director of numerous daily and weekly newspapers and other business concerns. Founded the Empire Press Union in 1909, which became the Commonwealth Press Union in 1950. Members of the CPU are newspapers of which there are currently over 700 from 50 Commonwealth countries in membership. These are represented by their proprietors, senior executives and editors. The Union's aim is to uphold the ideas and values of the Commonwealth and to promote, through the Press, understanding and goodwill among its members. British representative on the American Citizens Emergency Committee in 1914, serving on a special mission throughout the USA in 1915. Staff member of General Lloyd as captain of the London Volunteer Regiment, 1916, as Director of Intelligence National Service Department, and as the founder and chairman of the American officers club in London, 1917-1919. Member of the Executive Committee of the Economic League, a very secretive organization which was was set up in 1919 to fight Bolshevism and kept files on thousands of 'subversives' until it was wound up in 1994. In today's money, they millions of pounds every year working against the British left. After the war he was the originator and honourary life member of the Association of American Correspondents in London, 1919 and the president of the Anglo-American delegation to Holland for the celebration of the Pilgrim Fathers tercentenary, 1920. President of the British International Association of Journalists 1920-1922. Patron of the Society of Women Writers and Journalists from 1925, and was the originator and organiser of the first Imperial Press Conference, 1932. He was a member of the Anglo-American Brains Trust, 1942-1944 and was awarded the Silver Medal of Merit and Diploma by the Poor Richard Club of Philadelphia for his lifelong services to Anglo-American fellowship and understanding in 1958. Conservative MP for Acton 1918-1929. Member of the executive of the Empire Parliamentary Association from 1919 to 1929. Steered the Brittain Act for the protection of British birds through Parliament in 1925. Member of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association from 1929. Honorary president of Friends of Italy 1936-1939. Member of the central council of the Anglo-German Friendship Society (mirrored by the Deutsch-Englische Gesellschaft), together with Lord Walter Runciman and Lord McGowan. The driving force behind this foundation, founded in 1935, was Ernest Tennant, a merchant banker and friend of the Nazis international PR man von Ribbentrop since 1932. The group soon gathered 50 members of the House of Commons and House of Lords, 3 Directors of the Bank of England and "many generals, admirals, bishops and bankers". Pilgrims Lord Lothian and Lord Londonderry were among its council member. After the 1938 'Kristallnacht' 19 member resigned, including its president, Lord Mount Temple (Louis Mountbatten's father-in-law). On the other hand, 888 members did not withdraw. In 1939 a book called 'Tory MP': "At meetings of the Anglo German Fellowship leading Nazis advertise the merits of Germany's internal and foreign policy; the society recommends and advertises the writings of Nazi politicians; it shows Fascist films; it arranges a "German educationalist" to address teachers in this country; it arranges invitations for its members to attend the Nazi congress at Nuremberg." In 1936 Harry Brittain, Admiral Domville, Mount Temple and Sir Frank and Lady Newnes were "Ehrengaste" (guests of honour) at the Nuremberg Rally. The day before the official opening a reception was held to enable them to meet Hitler and his chief officials. Brittain was an executive member of the Anti-Socialist Union. Amongst his other honours, he was created KBE for public services in 1918, and CMG in 1924. He was a founder of the Commonwealth Press Union, organized the first Imperial Press Conferences, a Knight of the British Empire, and had a journalistic scholarship named after him in 1960. Carlton Club. Executive of the Anti-Socialist Union; Executive Committee, Economic League; Honorary President of the Friends of Italy; member, Anglo-German Friendship Society; Tory MP.

Brown, Franklin Q.
exec. committee
Listed in Who’s Who as a mystery individual listing no date or place of birth, no marriage, and no educational background. Involved with Redmond & Corporation, director of American Beet Sugar Company, American Light & Traction Company, S.A.L. Railway Company, J.G. White Engineering Corporation, Lima Locomotive Works, M. & Salt Lake Railroad, Cuba Grapefruit Company, Central Westchester & Fairfield Realty Company, Excess Insurance Company, and Insurance Securities Company, National Surety Company, president of Dobbs Ferry Bank, president of Independent Chemical Company, United States Railroad Administration.

Bruce, David Kirkpatrick Este
Direct descendant of Robert (I) the Bruce (1274-1329), King Of Scotland, who accepted the Knights Templar in Scotland. One of the closest allies of the Bruce (at the time) were the St. Clairs, which have also been represented in the Pilgrims Society. The daughter of King Robert I married Walter Stuart (Stewart), and their son became Robert (de Bruce) II. Father was the late U.S. Senator William Cabell Bruce (Sr.) of Maryland. His older brother was James Cabell Bruce, a very important New York-area banker. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1898. Attended Princeton University, but went on to serve in the US Army 1917-1920. Spent one year at the University of Virginia Law School and the next year at the University of Maryland Law School. Admitted to the Maryland Bar. Practiced law in Baltimore 1921-1925. Member of the Maryland House of Delegates 1924-1926. Went to Rome as a vice consul in the Foreign Service 1925-1926. Worked at the State Department 1927-1928. W.A. Harriman & Co. during the late 1920s. Member of the Virginia House of Delegates 1939-1942. American Red Cross chief representative in Great Britain 1940. OSS agent stationed in London where he worked with the Vatican 1941-1945. Eventually became director of the European Theater of Operations of the OSS. U.S. Assistant Secretary of Commerce 1947-1948. Chief of the European Cooperation Administration to France 1948-1949. Ambassador to France 1949-1952. Under Secretary of State 1952-1953. Special United States Observer at the Interim Committee of the European Defense Community 1953-1954. Also Special American Representative to the European High Authority for Coal and Steel 1953-1954. Ambassador to Germany 1957-1959. Ambassador to Great Britain 1961-1969. Husband of Paul Mellon’s sister (richest woman in America at the time). Their daughter disappeared in 1967. Chief of the United States delegation to the Paris Peace Conference on Vietnam 1970-1971. Identified as a vice president of the Pilgrims Society in 1972, alongside John Hay Whitney. Ambassador to China 1973-1974. Presidential Medal of Freedom 1976. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and has visited Bilderberg. Anglican-Episcopalian.

Bruce, James Cabell
Direct descendant of Robert (I) the Bruce (1274-1329), King Of Scotland, who accepted the Knights Templar in Scotland. One of the closest allies of the Bruce (at the time) were the St. Clairs, which have also been represented in the Pilgrims Society. The daughter of King Robert I married Walter Stuart (Stewart), and their son became Robert (de Bruce) II. Father was the late U.S. Senator William Cabell Bruce of Maryland. His brother was David K.E. Bruce. Graduated from Princeton University in 1914, after working in Woodrow Wilson's campaign for Governor of New Jersey. Received his law degree from the University of Maryland in 1916. Joined the staff of the International Banking Corporation in London, where he was employed when World War I began. Rose from private to major in the US Army, and served as a military aide to President Wilson at the Treaty of Versailles negotiations in 1919. Vice president of the Exchange Bank from 1921 to 1926 and vice president of the International Acceptance Bank in 1926-1927. In 1927, he was elected to the board of directors of the Commercial Credit Company of Baltimore, and a vice president of the National Park Bank of New York. Vice president of Chase National Bank from 1927-1931. From 1949 to 1950, he was the first director of the Mutual Assistance Program, the forerunner of NATO, and was ambassador to Argentina from 1947-1949. In 1931, James C. Bruce left Chase to return to the Baltimore Trust Company as its president. In 1932, Bruce was a director of the Commercial Credit Company of Baltimore. In 1933, he was president of the Baltimore Trust Company, and chairman of the board of the United Puerto Rican Sugar Company. The former president of the Davison Chemical Company, C. Wilbur Miller, filed suit against James C. Bruce, Albert H. Wiggin (Pilgrims) of the Chase National Bank, and others, alleging that they conspired to wreck his company because he refused to merge it with Rio Tinto Ltd. of England (New York Times, Jun. 28, 1933.), a company associated with the Rothschilds. One of the defendants in sixteen lawsuits alleging negligence by twenty-three officers and directors of the defunct Baltimore Trust, and settled his liability for $50,000 (1936). Became a vice president of the National Dairy Products Corporation in 1935-1947. In 1946, Bruce was vice chairman of the United Hospital Fund. US Envoy to Argentina in 1947-1950. Rejoined Dairy Products Corporation in 1950. Director of General American Investors, American Airlines, Avco Manufacturing Company, Chemical Bank, Chemical Corn Exchange Bank, Niagara Fire Insurance Company, Continental Insurance of the America Fore Group, Hanover Bank, Fruehauf Trailer Company, Commercial Credit Company, Grayson-Robinson Stores Inc., National Dairy Products Company and the Republic Steel Company, and Revlon. Co-chairman of the Business Men's Committee for Stevenson in 1956. Attended a 1960 dinner at the River Club of presidential candidate John F. Kennedy.

Bullock, Hugh
Son of Calvin Bullock who set up the very powerful Bullock banking trust (unique among large banking houses in that it was a proprietary business), which included the Canadian Investment Fund (one of the most powerful Canadian investment trusts in the thirties. People were joking why king George V hadn't joined), Nation-Wide Securities, Carriers & General Corp. and Dividend Shares. Calvin Bullock advertisements (father) never carry the firm's address and Calvin himself was quite reclusive. Calvin also had a lot of personal interest in Napoleon, Lord Nelson and their battles.

Burden, William A. Moale
Vice president of The Pilgrims at least in 1973, great great grandson of Commodore Vanderbilt, interests in National Aviation Corporation, Brown Brothers, Harriman & Company, William A.M. Burden & Company, investments; and was a director of Aerospace Corporation; Allied Chemical Corporation; American Metal Climax (AMAX); Columbia Broadcasting System; Lockheed Aircraft Corporation; Union Oil & Gas Corporation; Cerro de Pasco Corporation (mining interests) and Manufacturers Hanover Trust. Burden was a member of National Aeronautics & Space Council, 1958-1959; Ambassador to Belgium, 1959-1961; member U.S. Citizens Commission for NATO, 1961-1962; trustee Columbia University; Foreign Service Educational Foundation; French Institute in the U.S.; regent, Smithsonian Institution and director of the Council on Foreign Relations 1945-1974. Member of the Atlantic Council of the United States. Burden was decorated by Brazil; Germany; Peru; France; Italy and Belgium, in which countries, we may reasonably assume, the Vanderbilts have holdings. Reflecting his partnership with the British Crown in reuniting America and Britain, he was also a director of the Atlantic Council, which goal it seeks! The Vanderbilts intermarried with the Whitneys, partners in Standard Oil with the Rockefellers, and we note as of late 1973 John Hay Whitney was a vice president of The Pilgrims. Virginia Fair, daughter of Senator James Fair of California, a principal beneficiary of the Ophir Silver Mine, part of the Comstock Lode, married into the Vanderbilts.

Burger, Warren Earl
Floor manager at the 1948 and 1952 Republican conventions. U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in 1955. Supreme Court Chief Justice 1969-1986. Automatically appointed chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution during his appointment as Chief Justice. Followed up by Pilgrims Society member William H. Rehnquist as Chief Justice. More than 800 dignitaties, including President Clinton, Attorney General Janet Reno and 13 sitting and retired Supreme Court justices attended the funeral services at Washington's National Presbyterian.

Burleigh, George W.
Lived from the second half of the 19th century until the first half of the 20th century in the New York area.

Burnham, Lord Edward Levy-Lawson
Jewish and a member of the B'naï B'rith. His father acquired the Daily Telegraph and Courier in 1855, a few months after it was founded by Colonel Sleigh. Edward Burnham became the co-editor of the newspaper from 1855 to 1873 and later took the paper itself. The Daily Telegraph is now owned by Conrad Black's Hollinger Group.

Burns, Arthur Frank
Born in Stanislau, Austria, earned all his degrees at Columbia University and did all his teaching there, economic adviser to president Dwight Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter, chairman of the Federal Reserve System 1970-1978, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Bush, Irving T.
Started to construct a 200 acre industrial park on the waterfront in Brooklyn in 1900, founder of the Bush Terminal Railroad, president of Bush Terminal Co., attended a 1908 Pilgrim meeting. He ordered the building of the London Bush House in 1919, which became the most expensive building at that time. It was meant to be an Anglo-American trade centre where buyers could purchase goods in one place. It lost it's original function after a few decades, but still exists today as an office to the BBC World Service. The main entrance is very grand, with two statues and four big columns reaching half the height of the nine-story building. Inscribed above the doors is the legend "To the friendship of English Speaking Peoples". Two statues symbolise Great Britain and America, they each hold a flaming torch and a shield which have the British lion and the American eagle on them. In between the statues is an altar embossed with a Celtic cross. Irving T. Bush has no known relation to the Presidential Bushes.

Butler, Nicholas Murray
Butler earned an A.B (1882), M.A. (1883) and Ph.D. (1884), all in philosophy, at Columbia, specializing in the writings of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. He studied for a year at the universities of Berlin and Paris. Became a staff member of the Department of Philosophy at Columbia College, later known as Columbia University. In 1882, Nicholas Murray Butler was appointed by Columbia president Henry Barnard to offer Saturday lectures for teachers. The turnout was enormous. Member New Jersey Board of Education from 1887 to 1895. Delegate to the Republican Convention 1888-1936. In 1891 Butler founded the Educational Review, a journal of educational philosophies and developments. He served as its editor until 1921. Organized the New York College for the Training of Teachers in 1892, affiliated with Columbia. Chairman the Paterson school 1892-1893. In these roles he led efforts to remove state political interference from local New Jersey school systems. In New York City, he did the same, spurring the creation of a citywide school board that emphasized professionalism and policy over political spoils (1895–1897). When New York City's consolidation was complete, New York State sought a similar reform with Butler's advice, completed in 1904. Participated in the formation of the College Entrance Examination Board in 1900. Had become a close friend of Pilgrims Society member Elihu Root by this time. President of Columbia University 1901-1945. Professor Carroll Quigley wrote in 'Tragedy and Hope': "J.P. Morgan and his associates were the most significant figures in policy making at Harvard, Columbia and Yale while the Whitneys and Prudential Insurance Company dominated Princeton. The chief officials of these universities were beholden to these financial powers and usually owed their jobs to them... Morgan himself helped make Nicholas Murray Butler president of Columbia." Robert A. McCaughey wrote in 'Stand Columbia: A History of Columbia University in the City of New York, 1754–2004': "A compulsive name-dropper given to self-puffery, Butler was nevertheless an effective administrator [of Columbia], and J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, and E. H. Harriman sought to hire him to run their enterprises." Butler held the presidency in some of their railroad companies. President of the Germanistic Society of Columbia University in 1905-1906 and a director from 1908-1917. It organized and sponsored lecture series for German scholars in the United States. Travelled to Europe on occasion where he met with Kaiser Wilhelm and Mussolini in his early fascist days. Quote from the 1973 book 'The Glory and the Dream, a Narrative History of America, 1932-1972', by William Manchester, pages 67-68: "Nicholas Murray Butler told his students that totalitarian regimes brought forth "men of far greater intelligence, far stronger character, and far more courage than the system of elections," and if anyone represented the American establishment then it was Dr. Butler, with his 34 honorary degrees, and his thirty year tenure as president of Columbia University." (quoted by Charles Savoie) Supposedly Butler agreed with some of the Nazi racial theories about the superiority of the Teuton race. Another quote attributed to him is: "The history of American education and of our American contributions to philosophical thought cannot be understood or estimated with[out] knowing of the life work of Dr. William Torrey Harris." Harris, a supporter of Emmanuel Kant and Georg Hegel, shaped modern American education to a large degree. He also was highly influential in popularizing Hegel's philosophies in the second half of the 19th century. Established a friendship with Governor Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century. President University Settlement Society 1905-1914. Became a trustee of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in 1905. President American Academy in Rome 1905-1940s. President of the American branch of International Conciliation, an organization founded in 1905 by a Nobel peace laureate, Baron d'Estournelles de Constant (from an "old aristocratic family which traced its genealogy back to the Crusades", whatever that means). Chairman of the Lake Mohonk Conferences on International Arbitration, which met periodically from 1907 to 1912. President American Scandinavian Society 1908-1911. Influential in persuading Andrew Carnegie (a Pilgrims member, Hegelian, and Social Darwinist) to establish the Endowment in 1910 with a gift of $10,000,000 he served as head of the Endowment's section on international education and communication, founded the European branch of the Endowment, with headquarters in Paris, and held the presidency of the parent Endowment from 1925 to 1945. In 1912, Roosevelt ran for the presidency as the candidate of the Progressive Party, which drew most of its strength from Republicans, against the nominees of the constituted party: Taft for the presidency and Butler for the vice-presidency. By splitting the national vote, they permitted the Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, to win the election. President France-America Society 1914-1924. Nicholas Murray Butler, in an address delivered before the Union League of Philadelphia, Nov. 27, 1915: "The peace conference has assembled. It will make the most momentous decisions in history, and upon these decisions will rest the stability of the new world order and the future peace of the world." Both Nicholas Murray Butler and Elihu Root were staunch supporters of the League of Nations that would emerge after WWI. In 1916 Butler failed in his attempt to secure the Republican presidential nomination for Root. President American Hellenic Society 1917-1940s. William Bostock paper (University of Tasmania), 'To the limits of acceptability: political control of higher education' (2002): "On October 8, 1917, the famous historian Charles A. Beard resigned from Columbia University in protest over the dismissal of two colleagues, Professors Cattell and Dana, for having publicly opposed the entry of the United States into World War I. Cattell and Dana urged opposition to the draft, incurring the censure of Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler and the Columbia Board of Trustees. There had also been a history of conflict over academic leadership and governance between Butler and Cattell, a distinguished psychologist." Michael Parenti, 'Against Empire' (1995), chapter 10: "A leading historian, Charles Beard, was grilled by the Columbia University trustees, who were concerned that his views might "inculcate disrespect for American institutions." In disgust Beard resigned from Columbia, declaring that the trustees and Nicholas Murray Butler sought "to drive out or humiliate or terrorize every man who held progressive, liberal, or unconventional views on political matters." Elihu Root, Nicholas Murray Butler, and Stephen P. Duggan Sr. (CFR director) founded the Institute for International Education in 1919. Failed to secure the Republican presidential nomination in 1920. During the 1920s Butler was a member of the General Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer, chaired by Thomas W. Lamont, a Rockefeller banker and Pilgrims Society member. John D. Rockefeller, Sr. once wrote a public letter to Butler explaining why he supported the prohibition movement. According to Richard Koudenhove-Kalergi in his 1958 book 'Eine Idee erobert Europa. Meine Lebenserinnerungen' (translated): "One of my most energetic American friends and patrons was the president of the Columbia University, Nicholas Murray Butler, the president of the Carnegie Endowment at the same time. He wrote the foreword to the American edition of Paneuropa." Kalergi's Paneuropa movement was set up and funded by Max Warburg and Louis Rothschild in 1923. Paul and Felix Warburg were promoting the movement in the United States and Rothschild-ally Leopold S. Amery was a major supporter from the United Kingdom. Stephen P. Duggan, the CFR director and co-founder of the Institute for International Education, became the president of the American Cooperative Committee of the Pan-European Union (he held this position from 1925 to 1940). In 1927 Butler assisted the U.S. State Department in developing the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Failed to secure the Republican presidential nomination in 1928. President of the Pilgrims Society 1928-1946. Visitor of the Bohemian Grove and an honorary member by 1929. Butler gave the core members of the Frankfurt School’s Institute for Social Research a home in exile at Columbia University in 1934. These people were supporters of Georg Hegel, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, and Max Weber. Among these people was Herbert Marcuse, a Jewish Marxist Hegelian, who became the 'father of the New Left' in the 1960s. President Italy-America Society 1929-1935. Director of the New York Life Insurance Corporation 1929-1939. Nobel Peace Prize 1931. Received a gold medal from the National Institute of Social Sciences at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria in 1932, together with J.P. Morgan. On November 19, 1937, Butler attended a meeting where Pilgrims Society member Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, received a Nobel Prize for his work in establishing the League of Nations. Both Butler and Lord Cecil held speeches about the role the League of Nations should have. Although it is only a rumor, Butler is supposed to have said at this meeting (in private) that communism was a tool of the British financial powers to knock down national governments and to bring about a world government in the future. Chairman Carnegie Corporation of New York 1937-1945. Vice-president International Benjamin Franklin Society in 1939. Governor Pan American Trade Committee in 1939. Governor of the Metropolitan Club, founded by J.P. Morgan in 1891, and which counted among its members two Vanderbilts, three Mellons, five Du Ponts, and six Roosevelts. He was a governor Honorary president American Society of French Legion of Honor from 1944 on. Decorated by China, France, Dominican, Republic, Cuba, Germany, Greece, Yugoslavia, Belgium, Poland, Italy, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Holland, Chile and other countries. Quigley has quoted Butler as saying "The world is divided in to three classes of people: a very small group that makes things happen, a somewhat larger group that watches things happen, and the great multitude which never knows what happened."

Cadbury, Laurence John
Order of the British Empire, treasurer of the Population Investigation Committee in 1936, governor of the Bank of England 1936-1961, vice president of the Eugenics Society 1951-1952 and a long time fellow, managing director of Cadbury Bros. Ltd., including what is now Cadbury Schweppes, a $6 billion business in beverages, confections and other items. His two sons have taken over the business empire and one of them has also been governor of the Bank of England. His nephew, George Woodall Cadbury, wrote "Population changes and economics" (1941) and "The Case for Voluntary Euthanasia" (1971). There have been more Cadbury's busy in the eugenics/population control movement.

Carlton, Newcomb
President and chairman Western Union (During the 20s and 30s he was involved with laying the first transnational phone lines). In a Senate subcommittee hearing Carlton and others admitted that British Naval Intelligence was spying on the company and that this was the most common thing in the world. This practice went back to at least the first half of the 19th century. Carlton also was director International Acceptance Bank, Chase National Bank, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., American Express Co., the American Sugar Refining Co., American Telegraph and Cable Co., American International Corporation (very involved with the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917), and World Cable Systems. Stockholder of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. and a friend to its senior partners. Member Newcomen Society.

Carnegie, Andrew
Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, in 1835. His father, William Carnegie was a master handloom weaver like his father and grandfather before him. Went to school at the age of 8. His family moved to America in 1848 to seek a better life and ended up just north of Pittsburgh. Carnegie went to work as a bobbin boy in a local textile mill owned by a fellow Scot. He made $1.20 a week. Shortly thereafter he got a better paying job in a bobbin factory of yet another expatriate Scot. His job was dipping the bobbins into an oil bath and firing the factory boiler. He also got to work in the Company office on occasion where he decided he needed to learn double-entry bookkeeping. Consequently, in addition to working 12 hour days, he went to night school across the river in Pittsburgh. He got a job at the O'Reilly Telegraph Company as a messenger boy. Carnegie delivered messages to all the important businesses in the city and soon knew a great deal about Pittsburgh's commercial affairs. In 1851 he became a full time telegraph operator. Became a protege for Thomas A. Scott in 1853, who was president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Carnegie had come to Scott's attention because of his reputation as being the best telegraph operator in town and Scott needed a personal telegrapher and secretary. Scott established the first holding company, which was illegal at the time due to the corporate containment laws of the revolution. Scott's influence in politics was huge, thereby breaking another containment law, that of corporate involvement in politics. Scott hired members of the Ku Klux Klan as board members to his companies. He did this in order to stop the attacks by the Klan on the railroad work crews of newly emancipated slaves. To avoid bad publicity as much as possible, Scott was buying up newspapers in the North and South forcing editors to censor his critics. His railroads were also important during the Civil War, turning the tides of different battles. In 1856 Scott persuaded Carnegie to buy some stock and even loaned him the money to do so. Carnegie bought the stock primarily because he admired Scott and regarded him as a father figure. The experience of receiving dividends changed Carnegie's attitude and he became an enthusiastic investor. In 1859 Carnegie was appointed Superintendent of the Pittsburgh Division, the most important and difficult Division of the railroad. Co-founded the successful Columbia Oil Company in 1861, but grew tired of the messy oil business and got out in 1865. Went into the iron business with his partner Thomas Miller in 1861. Carnegie, Miller, and two other partners founded the Cyclops Iron Works in Pittsburgh in 1864. Carnegie quit the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1865 to start up the Keystone Bridge Company, since many bridges were destroyed during the Civil War. In 1868 Carnegie establishes the Keystone Telegraph Company with several associates from the railroad. The company receives permission from the Pennsylvania Railroad to string telegraph wire across the railroad's poles, which stretch across the entire state. This is such a valuable asset that Keystone is able to merge almost immediately with the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company, allowing Keystone's investors to triple their return. Carnegie writes himself a letter in 1868 in which he outlines his plans for the future. He determines to resign from business at age 35 and live on an income of $50,000 per year, devoting the remainder of his money to philanthropic causes, and most of his time to his education. He will change his mind. In 1869 Carnegie met Junius Morgan (J. P. Morgan's father and a George Peabody business partner since 1854; Peabody is said to have been an agent of the Rothschild family) in London. Junius Morgan was one of the leading investment bankers in London and his word "was as good as gold". If Morgan endorsed a bond issue, it would be easily placed. Carnegie made substantial fees (typically 2.5%) selling bonds in Europe. He placed issues for various bridge construction projects and several railroads. In 1870 he built his own blast furnace to guarantee supplies of pig iron that he controlled. In 1872 Carnegie came back from a trip to England convinced that the future was steel. While in England in 1872-1873, on one of his frequent trips to Great Britain, he met Henry Bessemer and saw the Bessemer process of making steel. This convinced him that steel was the future of the railroad industry. He then organized Carnegie, McCandless & Company (with some new partners as some of his earlier iron partners weren't convinced yet) in the United States and built a new steel plant named the Edgar Thompson Steel Works. Unfortunately some of his partners were unable to come up with their shares in the project because of the financial depression of 1873. At the same moment his mentor and friend Thomas Scott wanted Carnegie to bail out his troubled company. Carnegie (wisely) refused, Thomas went bankrupt, and their friendship ended. To keep his enterprise afloat Carnegie took his partner Holley with him to London in the summer of 1874 and the two were, with the aid of Junius Morgan (the Peabody banker and father of J.P. Morgan), able to sell $400,000 worth of bonds to London investors. The Edgar Thomson works were completed in 1875 and the business was an immediate success. In 1877 they already had a 13% share in the steel rail market, which had risen to 29% by 1897. Because Carnegie always had majority control in the partnership, he insisted upon plowing almost all the profits back into improving the works, always upgrading, always in search of the littlest efficiencies. He was always concerned more with building and improving than spending dividends. In October 1883 Carnegie bought the Homestead Works from a group of Pittsburgh investors. In 1886 Carnegie made Charles M. Schwab (at the age of 24; later Pilgrims Society member and known as a "master hustler") general superintendent of the Homestead Works. Married Louise Whitfield of New York in 1887 and they had one child, Margaret. Came up with the idea of Carnegie Hall in 1889 and provided the funds to build it. It was opened in 1891, although construction work continued until 1897. The Carnegie family owned the music hall until 1924 and it is still legendary for its acoustics. In 1892 Frick persuaded Carnegie to merge Carnegie Brothers and Carnegie, Phipps, Company into one vast company, Carnegie Steel. It had an initial capitalization of $25,000,000 which was far below the actual value of the company. Carnegie owned 55%, Frick 11%, Phipps 11%, and nineteen other partners 1% each. In 1895, Andrew Carnegie presented the people of Pittsburgh with the Carnegie Institute. It housed a library, a music hall, an art gallery, and a museum of natural history. It's important to note that Carnegie always (also in the future) funded the building of the actual libraries, but required local governments to legislate commitments to fund ongoing maintenance, staff, and book purchases from public coffers. Carnegie was a generous financial supporter and one of the many vice presidents of the Anti-Imperialist League, which was formed in June 1898 to fight U.S. annexation of the Philippines, citing a variety of reasons ranging from the economic to the legal to the racial to the moral. The league died after the Treaty of Paris was signed in December of that same year. Carnegie consolidated his holdings into Carnegie Steel Co. in 1899 at which moment he controlled 1/4 of American steel production.. In 1900 Carnegie provided $1 million to the Carnegie Technical Schools in Pittsburgh which developed into the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912. Sold Carnegie Steel in 1901 to J.P. Morgan for $480 million and used the money to retire. Morgan renamed the company to U.S. Steel. Carnegie had been a director of American Express, Illinois Central Railroad, United States Trust Company of New York, Western Union Telegraph, City & Suburban Homes, and Cuban-Dominican. Gave the New York Public Library $5.2 million for 65 branch libraries in 2001. Created the Trust for the Universities of Scotland in 1901. The gift of $10 million that endowed the trust was larger by several orders of magnitude than the assistance provided by the government of the day to the four ancient Scottish Universities. Established the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1902, an organization for scientific discovery. His intention was for the institution to be home to exceptional individuals - men and women with imagination and extraordinary dedication capable of working at the cutting edge of their fields. The first president of the institution was Daniel Coit Gilman (incorporated Skull & Bones into the Russell Trust). The Carnegie Teachers' Pension Fund was established in 1905 and Carnegie endowed the fund with $10 million. It was incorporated in the following year as the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and did a lot to improve the level of education in the US. Member of the Philippine Independence Committee in 1904 and a vice president of the Filipino Progress Association 1905-1907. Established the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission in the US in 1904 to help people that had been struck by some kind of disaster. It was established in Britain in 1908 and was soon followed by nine Funds on the European continent: France, Germany (doesn't exist anymore), Belgium, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. Funded the first 'Temple of Peace', known as the Bureau of American Republics in Nicaragua, which was ready in 1908. Funded the second 'Temple of Peace', known as the Central American Court of Justice, which was ready in 1910. Contributed to the building of the 'House of the Americas' in Washington D.C. in 1910, which became the headquarters of the Pan American Union. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was set up in 1910 at the initial direction of Pilgrims Society member Nicholas Murray Butler (of the Pilgrims). The first president of the Carnegie Endowment was Elihu Root (1910-1925; Pilgrims), who became a primary founder of the Council on Foreign Relations in later years. The Carnegie Endowment publishes Foreign Policy magazine since 1970, which was established by Samuel P. Huntington (who wrote ‘The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World'). The Endowment conducts programs of research, discussion, publication, and education on international affairs and US foreign policy. Today it is funded by the Rockefeller, Luce, and Ford Foundations, AIG, Boeing, Citigroup, and other corporations. Andrew created the Carnegie Corporation of New York in 1911, which is the grant-making organization. Funded the third 'Temple of Peace', known as the Palace of Peace at the Hague, which was ready in 1913 and is owned by the Carnegie Foundation. The Dutch Royals were present at the inauguration. Created the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust in 1913. It was involved in the restoration of some 3,500 church organs throughout the British Isles and the creation of the more than 2800 Carnegie libraries in the United States, Canada, the British Isles, and many countries of the British Commonwealth. 660 of these libraries were located in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The Church Peace Union (today known as the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs) was established at a meeting at the home of Andrew Carnegie in 1914 with an endowment of over $2 million. When WWI broke out in 1914, Carnegie left Scotland. The Carnegie Endowment established the American Council of Learned Societies in 1919. Elihu Root prepared the final will of Carnegie on March 31, 1919. When he died that same year, Carnegie had given away over $350 million. He was known as a Social Darwinist (supporting the work of Darwin and Herbert Spencer) and a follower of William Torrey Harris, the highly influential American educator who popularized the theories of Georg Hegel and Emmanuel Kant.
Today the Carnegie Endowment is one of the driving forces of the globalization process and funds numerous United Nations programs. The Carnegie Corporation of New York sponsors the CFR on a continuous basis with grants ranging from $25,000 to $900,000 annually and the Atlantic Council of the United States with $25,000 to $100,000 annually. It donated $200,000 to the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 2003. The American Red Cross receives several hundred thousand dollars a year. The Staten Island Zoological Society and the Museum of Jewish Heritage (the ‘Living Memorial to the Holocaust') each receive $100,000 a year. Some other organizations that receive large amounts of grants are the Institute of Semitic Studies, the Center for Jewish History, the American Assembly, the American Museum Of Natural History (Charles Darwin), the American Foreign Policy Council, and the Moscow School of Political Studies. The Carnegie Corporation makes (globalist) research grants to almost, if not all the major universities in the United States and southern Africa. These grants add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars annually to even several million a year to some of the larger universities. The universities in the United States that receive these grants are: America, Arizona, Bradford, Boston, Brigham Young, California, Carnegie Mellon, Catholic, Chicago, Cincinnati, Claremont, Colorado, Columbia, Connecticut, DePau, Dillard, Duke, Emory, Fort Hare, Georgia, Georgetown, George Washington, Harvard, Illinois, Indiana, Johns Hopkins, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Northwestern, Notre Dame, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Princeton, Queens, Rutgers, Stanford, Syracuse, Temple, Tennessee, Texas, Tufts, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Yale. The universities in southern Africa that receive Carnegie grants are: Cape Town, KwaZulu-Natal, Pretoria, Witwatersrand, Western Cape, Makerere, Dar es Salaam, Ghana, Obafemi Awolowo, Jos, Ahmadu Bello, Stellenbosch, Rand Afrikaans, Rhodes, and Makerere. Many of these South African universities receive $2 million a year. Other universities that receive Carnegie research grants are the University of the Pacific, the Central European University (chaired by George Soros), the American University of Beirut, and the Australian National University. The Carnegie Corporation also funds several umbrella organizations in the international education system. Among them are the American Association of University Professors, the American Forum for Global Education, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, and the Association of African Universities. The Carnegie Corporation works closely with the Ford Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and others.

Carrington, Lord Peter Rupert
Carrington was educated at Eton and RMA Sandhurst. In 1938 he succeeded his father as 6th Baron Carrington and took his seat in the House of Lords on his 21st birthday in 1940. In WWII he served as a major in the Grenadier Guards and was awarded the Military Cross. Went into politics and joined the Conservatives. Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry for Agriculture and Food 1951-1954. Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Defence 1954-1956. High Commissioner to Australia 1956-1959. Became a member of the Privy Council in 1959. First Lord of the Admiralty 1959-1963. Minister without Portfolio and Leader of the House of Lords 1963-1964. Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords 1964-1970. Defence Secretary 1970-1974. Chairman of the Conservative Party 1972-1974. Secretary of State for Energy from January to March 1974. Stepped temporarily out of politics in 1974. Chairman of the Australia and New Zealand Bank since the mid-1960s. Joined the board of Hambros Bank in June 1967. Director of Barclays Bank in September 1967-1970, but rejoined Barclays in 1974. Director of Barclays Bank International since July 1975. Has been a director of Rio Tinto (since 1974), Cadbury Schweppes, Hollinger International, Amalgamated Metal, and the British Metal Corp. Member of the International Advisory Council of Chase Manhattan. Attended the Trilateral Commission in the 1970s. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Royal Institute for International Affairs. One of the few who was in the loop of Brian Crozier's (Le Cercle) Shield Committee that succeeded in getting Margaret Thatcher elected in 1979. British Foreign Secretary for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 1979-1982. Rejoined Barclays Bank and Barclays International in 1982. Resigned over the Falkland crisis although he expressed his opinion that much of the criticism was unjustified. President of the Pilgrims of Great Britain since 1983. Joined Kissinger Associates in the 1983-1984 period. Secretary General of NATO 1984-1988. Member of the Order of the Garter since 1985. Identified as a governor of the Atlantic Institute for International Affairs in 1987. Chairman of Bilderberg 1989-1998. Governor of the Ditchley Foundations. Member of the Other Club, together with the Duke of Devonshire (Cavendish), the 7th Marquess of Salisbury (Cecil), Lord Rothschild, Lord Rees-Mogg, Lord Julian Amery, Prince Charles, Lord Richardson of Duntisbourne, Paul Channon, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, Sir Edward Heath, Sir Denis Thatcher, and Winston S. Churchill. Member of the Grillion's Club, together with the Duke of Norfolk, the Duke of Devonshire (Cavendish), the 7th Marquess of Salisbury (Cecil), the Earl of Perth, Lord Richardson of Duntisbourne (major Pilgrims Society member), Nicholas Baring (vice chair Baring Brothers until 1989) and John Major.

Cates, Louis S.
Chairman American Mining Congress, chairman Phelps-Dodge Corporation (the world's number two leading producer of copper and molybdenum and is the world's largest producer of continuous-cast copper rod) 1930-1947. The Phelps-Dodge company was a main financier of the 1934 fascist plot against FDR. The vice president of Phelps-Dodge Corporation, Cleveland Dodge, was one of the Crusaders' National Advisors, who were working together with The American Libert League to turn public opinion pro-fascist. They worked together with the du Ponts, Morgans, Harrimans and many other wealthy influential families, many of them Pilgrims.

Cates, John Martin, Jr.
Member of the executive committee of the Wolf’s Head Society of Yale, worked at the United States Mission to the United Nations and worked close with McGeorge Bundy and George Wildman Ball, president Center For Inter-American Relations in New York, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Catlin, George Edward Gordon
Educated at St Paul's School, New College, Oxford, and Cornell University, where he was professor of politics 1924-1959. He was lecturer at various universities, including Yale, Calcutta, Columbia, Peking and Berkeley. An Assistant Professor of Politics at Cornell by the age of 28 and subsequently twice acting chairman. In 1925 Catlin wrote the first of many articles advocating the closest Anglo-American cooperation on every level, in fact organic union. In 1926 he was appointed Director of the National Commission (Social Research Council) to study the impact of prohibition in the United States. Between 1928 and 1931 Catlin was attached to the personal staff of Sir Oswald Mosley, a period before Mosley had made his final break with the Labour Party. From 1929 onwards Catlin attempted to win a suitable Labour Party nomination and he unsuccessfully stood for Brentford in 1931 and for Sunderland in 1935. In 1929 he assisted H.G. Wells, Arnold Bennett and other literati in establishing The Realist magazine and between 1935 and 1937 he served on the executive of the Fabian Society. During the 1930s Catlin traveled abroad extensively, journeying to Germany where he witnessed the Dimitrov trial, with its sinister foreshadowing of what Nazism was to become, to Russia for a prolonged examination of the newly established Communist regime and to Spain during the depths of the Civil War. Throughout this period Catlin wrote a large number of journalistic pieces, principally for the Yorkshire Post. He served on the campaign team of Presidential candidate Wendell Wilkie during 1940 and his book, One Anglo-American Nation appeared in 1941. In 1931 Catlin met Gandhi for the first time in London and he became an early advocate of Indian independence, visiting the sub-continent in 1946 and again in 1947 and publishing his tribute to the assassinated leader, In the Path of Mahatma Gandhi, during 1948. He lectured in Peking in 1947, served as Provost of Mar Ivanios College in Indiana in 1953-54 and a Chairman and Bronfman Professor in the Department of Economics and Political Science at McGill University between 1956 and 1960. His autobiography, on which he had worked sporadically since the end of the First World War, was finally published in 1972 as For God's Sake, Go.

Catto, Henry Edward, Jr.
Graduate of Williams College. Deputy representative to the Organization of American States 1969-1971. U.S. ambassador to El Salvador 1971-1973. Chief of protocol of the White House and Department of State 1974-1976. U.S. representative to the United Nations Offices in Geneva 1976-1977. Assistant secretary of Defense for Public Affairs and Pentagon spokesman 1981-1983. Vice chairman and president of Broadcast Group at H & C Communications 1983-1989 (operator of network television stations Houston, Orlando-Daytona Beach, San Antonio). U.S. ambassador to Great Britain 1989-1991. Director of the United States Information Agency 1991-1993. Partner in the insurance firm Catto & Catto. Diplomat-in-residence at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Member of the Smithsonian National Board. Vice-chairman of the Aspen Institute. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Chairman of the Atlantic Council of the United States since 1999.

Calhoun, John Calwell
Was with the Confederate Army at the Battle of Fort Sumter. His wife, Linnie Adams, was grandniece of Richard M. Johnson, vice president of the U.S., 1837-1941. After the war he had agricultural interests in Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas and was part of the management of the Cotton Exposition in 1884 at New Orleans. He was special ambassador to France in 1897, sent by the S.A.R.---Sons of the American Revolution (France assisted the Colonies in becoming free from the British). Calling himself a "financier" (perhaps the Erlangers put him in business) in the 1897-1942 volume, he was president of the Baltimore Coal Mining & Railroad Company and “Albertite Oilite & Cannel Coal Co. Ltd."

Caulcutt, Sir John
born 1876
Director of large companies. No other info.

Cave, Viscount George
Having served as standing Counsel to Oxford University for two years as well as Attorney General to the Prince of Wales, in 1915 Cave was appointed Solicitor General and knighted. The following year, he was made Home Secretary in Lloyd George's coalition government, a post he held for three years. In 1918, Sir George Cave was ennobled as Viscount Cave, of Richmond in the County of Surrey. The following year, he became a Lord of Appeal, and chaired a number of commissions, including the Southern Rhodesian commission and the Munitions Enquiry Tribunal. In 1922, he became Lord Chancellor in Bonar Law's government, and again served in this capacity in Baldwin's first administration. Having been made GCMG in 1921, he was also elected Chancellor of Oxford University in 1925.

Cecil, Lord Robert Gascoyne
Member of the very powerful Cecil family that has produced numerous members of the Order of Garter and the Privy Council, starting with Sir William Cecil in the 1500s. They intermarried with elite blue blood families as de Vere, Arundel, Plantagenet, and Cavendish. Sir William Cecil was a student of John Dee, the official founder of Enochian Magic. The family forged links with the Republic of Venice around 1600 and built Hatfield House, which still is the family's residence, in 1607. William Cecil and his protege Sir Francis Walsingham devised an intricate spy network during the latter years of Elizabeth I's reign that succeeded in uncovering numerous Catholic plots against the monarch. Some people of that time have stated Cecil himself was a plotter behind these assassinations. Sir William Cecil’s daughter, Anne, married Edward de Vere, the 17th Earl of Oxford and a member of what was quite possibly the bluest of blue blood families in existence. De Vere had worked for William Cecil and the throne since a young age and was later rumored to have written the works of Shakespeare. Lady Diana Cecil married the 18th Earl of Oxford.
Third son of his namesake Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, who was a member of the Order of the Garter and the Privy Council. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury was the Chancellor of Oxford University from 1869 to 1903, a fellow of All Souls, and a British prime minister for 14 years. Carrol Quigley described the Rhodes secret society and the Round Table Group (All Souls, Oxford) as the 'Cecil Bloc'. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury and his family were really the prime movers behind this network. Robert grew to like Benjamin Disraeli, who he had previously distrusted as a Jew. Disraeli eventually became a housefriend to the family and was invested into the Order of the Garter. Baron Lionel de Rothschild was another close friend of Disraeli. One of Cecil's sisters was the mother of Arthur J. Balfour (An occultist who wrote a letter to Lionel de Rothschild in November 1917 declaring that the British government stood behind zionist plans to build a Jewish national home in Palestine) and Gerald W. Balfour. Even today, the Hatfield House is the Hertfordshire home of the family, built between 1609 and 1611 by the1st Earl of Salisbury; a Privy Councillor and Knight of the Garter who was the Chief Minister to James I.
Robert Cecil, the third son of 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, was educated at home until 1877, which he considered superior to his later college education. Went to Eton College and Oxford where he studied law and turned out to excel at debate. Admitted to the Bar in 1887. Married Lady Eleanor Lambton in 1889. Law career from 1887 to 1906. Member of the Coefficients diner-debate Club which organized monthly meetings between 1902 and 1908. Other members were H.G. Wells, Arthur Balfour (a cousin of Cecil), Alfred Milner, Halford Mackinder, Earl Bertrand Russell (often with a different, but not more humane opinion than the others), Viscount Edward Grey, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, and Leopold Amery (Rothschild associate; father of a later head of Le Cercle). Member of the Conservative Party to the House of Commons 1906-1910. Set up the RT Group in 1910 with Lionel Curtis and others. Independent Conservative member House of Commons 1911-1923. Worked for the Red Cross 1914-1915. Became a member of the Privy Council in 1915. Assistant Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1915-1916. Minister of Blockade from 1916 to 1918, being responsible for devising procedures to bring economic and commercial pressure against the enemy. Assistant Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1918-1919. Chancellor of Birmingham University 1918-1944. Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council of the Versailles Peace Treaty in 1919 and one of the principal draftsmen of the League of Nations Covenant. Co-founder and first chairman of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920. Became the first 1th Viscount of Chelwood in 1923. Lord Privy Seal 1923-1924. President of the British League of Nations Union 1923-1945. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1924-1927. Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937 for his work in establishing the League of Nations. During this meeting he and co-Pilgrims Society member Nicholas Murray Butler spoke in favor of expanding the role of the League of Nations. Present at the final meeting of the League of Nations in 1946 and ended his speech with the words: "The League is dead, long live the United Nations." Cecil's autobiography, 'All the Way', was published in 1949. Member Pilgrims Society.
The 5th Marquess of Salisbury (KG; PC; married into Cavendish family) was president of the Conservative Monday Club from 1961 to 1972. This was the center of the pro-colonial movement in Britain, which even prepared for a coup against the "KGB-infiltrated" Labour government of Harold Wilson in the 1970s. General Walter Walker and later Cercle chairman Julian Amery were among the members of this club. His son, the 6th Marquess of Salisbury, took over the Conservative Monday Club in 1974 and ran it until 1981. September 13, 1965, The Times, letter of the 5th Marquess of Salisbury, 'Government in Rhodesia - Arguments against majority rule': "[Churchmen] fall into the all too common error of assuming that the only form of Government compatible with the Christian way of life is majority rule. Actually, at any rate, in the case of primitive peoples, that has, I believe, never been so: nor, judging by our experience with other African states which have recently gained their independence, is it so now. Democracy is the most difficult of all sytems to work. It requires the highest degree of civilization. Can anyone who knows Rhodesia say that the average African in that country is ready for it yet? It could no doubt be argued - though I am sure that the signatories of the letter would not use such an argument - that majority rule is more important than the Christian way of life. But do they really expect anyone who has personal experience of Rhodesia to believe that the people of that country, whether white or black, would benefit either spiritually or materially by the introduction of majority rule at the present time?"
The 7th Marquess of Salisbury is a member of Le Cercle and the Privy Council, and good friends with the late Cercle chairman Julian Amery.
The Cecils also are generational members of the Roxburghe Club, putting them in touch with the old ruling families of Britain, including Howard, Cavendish, Rothschild, Oppenheimer, and Mellon.

Chadbourne, William Merriam
born 1879
New York lawyer, vice president of the China Society of America.

Chaffee, Adna Romanza
A General in the United States Army. Chaffee took part in the Indian Wars, played a key role in the Spanish-American War, and was instrumental at crushing the Boxer Rebellion in China. He also fought in the Philippine-American War in 1901 and 1902. Chaffee was the Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1904 to 1906, overseeing far-reaching transformation of organization and doctrine in the Army.

Chamberlain, Arthur Neville
The first half of his career was spent in business and, after 1911, in the city government of Birmingham, of which he became lord mayor in 1915. In 1917 he was director of national service, supervising conscription, and the following year, at the age of 50, he was elected to Parliament as a Conservative. During the 1920s he served both as chancellor of the exchequer (1923–24) and minister of health (1923, 1924–29). In the latter position, he enacted a series of important reforms that simplified the administration of Britain's social services and systematized local government. In 1931 he again became chancellor of the exchequer and held that office until he succeeded Stanley Baldwin as prime minister in 1937. During the 1930s, Chamberlain's professed commitment to avoiding war with Hitler resulted in his controversial policy of “appeasement,” which culminated in the Munich Pact (1938). Although contemporaries and scholars during and after the war criticized Chamberlain for believing that Hitler could be appeased, recent research argues that Chamberlain was not so naive and that appeasement was a shrewd policy developed to buy time for an ill-prepared Britain to rearm. After Germany's invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1939, he pledged military support to Poland and led Britain to war in September. After the British debacle in Norway, he was forced to resign in May, 1940. He was lord president of the council under Winston Churchill until Oct., 1940, and died a few weeks later.

Charles, Michael Harrison
He was educated at Jacksonville Episcopal High School, the University of Florida, Florida State University and New York University. Mr. Charles is a well-known interior designer having worked for several major architectural firms before founding Michael H. Charles Associates in 1985. Member of the Advisory Council of the Hereditary Society Community of the United States of America (researches history and genealogy). His designs have been published in numerous magazines and books over the years and he was the recipient of the prestigious Wool Bureau Award for fabric design. Michael H.Charles Associates maintains offices in New York City and St. Augustine, Florida. Mr. Charles is a member of the Pilgrims of the United States, New York, as well as The Honourable Company of Freemen of London.. He is also a member of St. Thomas Church of Fifth Avenue wherehe serves as Head Usher, and on the Choir School Benefit Committee, as Acquisitions Chairman, and on the Stewardship Committee. He is a life member of the Society of Mary; Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament; Guild of All Souls; Society of St. King Charles the Martyr; and the Church Club of New York where he also serves as a member of Events Committee. Mr. Charles is Worshipful Master of the Masonic Independent Royal Arch Lodge #2 F&AM, of New York City. He has served as Junior Warden and Master of Ceremonies. Mr. Charles is also a member of Long I Grotto; Scottish Rite, Valley of New York, 32 degree; Ancient Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, New York City; Columbian Council, Cryptic Masons, New York City; Morton Commandery, Knights Templar, New York City; Paumonock Council, Knight Masons, New York City; Quartro Coranotti Lodge, London, England. He is a member of the Ponte Vedra Club of Jacksonville, FL; the Royal Scottish Automobile Club of Glasgow, Scotland; and the Lansdowne Club of London of London, England. Society of the Cincinnati in the State of Virginia (life member); General Society of Colonial Wars (Secretary and life member of the New York Society; regular member of the Florida Society Society; Gentleman of the Council in New York and Florida Societies); Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York (life member; Member of the Council); Colonial Order of the Acorn (life member); Order of the Indian Wars of the United States (life member); General Society Sons of the Revolution (member in the States of New York and Pennsylvania; life member of NY Society; Fraunces Tavern Museum Board Member); Saint Andrews Society of New York (life member) Saint David Society of New York (life member); Saint George's Society of New York (life member; Board member; Chairman Activities; Chairman - Queen's Jubilee 2002; Ball Committee); Society of the Sons of Saint George of Philadelphia (life member); Military Society of the War of 1812 (life member); Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York (life member); The Huguenot Society of America (life member; Registrar General; Member of the Membership Committee); Colonial Society of Pennsylvania Military Order of the Stars and Bars (life member; Commander of the New York Society); Order of the Southern Cross (life member); Dutch Settlers Society of Albany (life member); Huguenot Society of Pennsylvania (life member); National Society Sons of the American Colonists (life member; former Vice President General); Society of the Descendants of the ColonialClergy (life member); Hereditary Order of the Descendants of Colonial Governors (life member; Third Vice President General); Order of Americans of Armorial Ancestry (life member); Flagon and Trencher (life member); Descendants of the Founders of New Jersey (life member); National Society Descendants of Early Quakers (life member); Friendly Sons of St. Patrick of Philadelphia (life member); Order of Descendants of Colonial Physicians & Chirurgiens (life member); Sons and Daughters of the Colonial & Antebellum Bench and Bar 1585-1861 (life member); National Society Sons of the American Revolution (Florida State, Past Regional Vice President; Organizing President, St. Augustine Chapter; First Continental Chapter, New York City, Member of the Council); General Society of the War of 1812 (former Florida State President); National Society Sons and Daughters of the Pilgrims (Florida and New York; Councilor - New York Branch); Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (Officer); Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem (Prior of St. Michael & St. George New York City Priory; Silver Pilgrim Shell); Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Cavalieri)

Choate, Joseph H.
He was born at Salem, Massachusetts, the son of Dr George Choate, a noted physician, and was a nephew of Rufus Choate, a well known lawyer and politician. Graduated from Harvard Law school in 1854. Admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1855. Admitted to the New York bar in 1856. Entered the law office of Scudder & Carter in New York City in 1856. Republican and frequent speaker in presidential campaigns, beginning with the one of 1856. His success in his profession was immediate, and in 1860 he became junior partner in the firm of Evarts, Southmayd & Choate, the senior partner in which was William M Evarts. This firm and its successor, that of Evarts, Choate & Beaman, remained for many years among the leading law firms of New York and of the country, the activities of both being national rather than local. Became a member of the Committee of Seventy in New York City in 1871, which was instrumental in breaking up Boss Tweed and his crime gang (Pilgrim Elihu Root also played a role in this process). Chairman at an 1882 meeting where the panel unanimously denounced the Jewish persecution in Russia (an Anson Phelps-Stokes was also chairman who's was a S&B member in 1896, just as many other Phelps). Lawyer for John D. Rockefeller during an 1888 Trust investigation of the Senate of New York State. Served on other occasions as attorney for the Rockefeller family. President of the 1892 Constitutional Convention working close with later Pilgrim Elihu Root. President of the New York state constitutional convention in 1894. Successfully challenged the Income Tax Act of 1894 (claimed it was communist). Candidate for the Republican senatorial nomination against Senator Thomas C. Platt in 1897. Ambassador to Britain 1899-1905, and very popular in this country. One of the US representatives at the second Peace Congress at the Hague in 1907. Here the United States failed in its effort to secure the establishment of a world court. Attended a 1908 Pilgrim meeting. Long time friend of Skull & Bones, Pilgrims Society, and Corsair Club member Chauncey M. Depew. Choate also was a member of J.P. Morgan's elite Corsair Club, just as William Rockefeller. Identified as a president of the Pilgrims of the United States in 1913. In December 1914 the National Security League was founded to support universal military training, military preparedness, patriotism, and the extermination of values which were "un-American." Choate served as initial honorary president, while the first acting president was Robert Bacon, a partner in J.P. Morgan. The energy displayed by war advocates was often misdirected against anyone suspected of unpatriotic actions, words, or even thoughts. In the name of the National Security League, University employees suspected of pacifism, disloyalty, or "subversive" thought were attacked. Many citizens of German descent suffered from suspicion and anti-German propaganda. Intense anti-German feeling swept the state and nation. It became unpopular, if not unpatriotic, to play German music, to speak or read German. Enrollment in German courses in the University dropped from 1,300 to 150. By 1917, the NSL had helped build war hysteria to a fever pitch. The 1947 national security state was built from blueprints drawn by the leaders of the NSL, who were funded by Morgan's U.S. Steel, the Rockefeller oil companies, and Coleman du Pont. Soon after WWI and the Russian revolution, many among America’s wealthy elite felt threatened by rising radicalism, particularly among unions. In April 1919, letter bombs, destined for John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan and others, were supposedly discovered in the U.S. postal system. The media quickly stirred up a massive Red Scare by blaming unions, communists, anarchists and foreign agitators. John Spivak says: “Trade unions were openly disbelieving and denounced with anger the so-called discoveries as a deliberate frame-up to provide excuses for more raids against organized labour” (A Man in His Time, 1967). This incident and others were used as pretexts for the Palmer Raids, during which the government rounded up more than ten thousand activists across the country.

Christopher, Warren M.
Studied law at Stanford, deputy attorney general under President Lyndon Johnson, deputy secretary of state under President Jimmy Carter (he was the chief American negotiator in the 1981 talks that ended the Iranian hostage crisis), director Council on Foreign Relations 1982-1987, vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1987-1991, Stanford University trustee, Secretary of State 1993-1997 (particularly involved in seeking Arab-Israeli peace agreements and in negotiating a peace in Bosnia), chairman of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department, director of Chevron-Texaco, Lockheed, Southern California Edison and First Interstate Bancorporation. Anno 2005, Chairman of the Carnegie Corporation in New York.

Chrysler, Walter Percy
Founder of the Chrysler Corporation (now part of DaimlerChrysler A.G.). He began as a machinist’s apprentice and rose within the industry to become vice president in charge of operations at General Motors in 1919. In 1920 he undertook the reorganization of the Willys Overland and Maxwell companies. In 1924 he brought out the first Chrysler car and within a short time he made the company one of the largest automobile manufacturers.

Church, Elihu
hon. secretary
Multimillionaire, rose to a major during WWI, engineer of Transportation of the Port Authority of New York.

Churchill, Sir Winston
The son of Lord Randolph Churchill, who was (very) close to Nathaniel de Rothschild, and an American mother. He was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. After a brief but eventful career in the army, he became a Conservative Member of Parliament in 1900. Invested into the Albion Lodge of the Ancient Order of Druids on August 15, 1908. He held many high posts in Liberal and Conservative governments during the first three decades of the century. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915. In May 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence and remained in office until 1945. As opposed to many other influential businessmen and politicians Churchill did not want peace with Germany. On January 27, 1942 during Parliamentary debates at the House of Commons Churchill confirmed: "We have also to remember how oddly foreigners view our country and its way of doing things. When Rudolf Hess flew over here some months ago he firmly believed that he had only to gain access to certain circles in this country for what he described as "the Churchill clique" to be thrown out of power and for a Government to be set up with which Hitler could negotiate a magnanimous peace." On 15 June 1942, Churchill suggested that British bombers wipe out three German villages for every one Czech settlement destroyed. Was of the opinion that top Nazis should be summarily executed without being tried. He took over the premiership again in the Conservative victory of 1951 and resigned in 1955. However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election. Queen Elizabeth II conferred on Churchill the dignity of Knighthood and invested him with the insignia of the Order of the Garter in 1953. Among the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963. Chancellor of the University of Bristol 1929-1965. Usually spent winters at La Capponcina, owned by Lord Beaver-brook. Churchill's close friendship with Lord Beaverbrook is quite remarkable as the latter was a close friend to Rudolf Hess and Hitler who negotiated peace with them after their invasion of Europe. Churchill was responisble for killing that proposel.

Clark, G. Russell
Sources: April 13, 1991, South Florida Sun-Sentinel, obituary
Served as New York's superintendent of banks in the administration of Governor. Nelson Rockefeller. He also was chairman of the Bank of North America in New York City, chief executive officer of the New York Clearing House Association and director of the First National Bank & Trust Co. of Kearny, N.J. Member of the Fort Lauderdale Country Club, the Lago Mar Beach Club, the Pilgrims Society of the United States, the Union League Club in New York City and served on the Heisman Trophy Committee for three years.

Clarke, Sir Caspar Purdon
Architect, archaeologist and museum director, had been on purchasing expeditions on behalf of the Victoria and Albert Museum to Turkey, Syria, Greece, Spain, Italy and Germany. He spent two years as a special commissioner in India, which is when he acquired the Hamzanama (painting of an uncle of the prophet Muhammed).

Clarkson, Robert
Royal Globe Insurance Group in the first part of the 20th century. All the information available.

Clews, James B.
Stayed at the Waldorf-Astoria. All the information available.

Clover, Richardson
In 1897-1898 he was chief of the Office of Naval Intelligence; member of the Board on Construction of Vessels, 1897-1899; member War and Strategy board, 1898; commanded U.S.S. Bancroft, May 1, 1898, until end of Spanish-American War; served as Naval Attaché in London, 1900-1903; commanded as Rear Admiral, the U.S.S. Wisconsin, Asiatic region, 1904-1905; and served as president of the Board of Inspection, 1906-1908.

Coleman, Charles P.
born 1865
Lehigh Valley Railroad (Vanderbilt and Rockefeller ownership), director American-Russian Chamber of Commerce from its founding in 1922. Father of Leighton H. Coleman.

Coleman, Leighton Hammond
Emeritus director of RJ. Reynolds Industries. Son of Charles P. Coleman.

Coleshill, Lord Vincent of
Richard (Dick) Vincent was born in London in 1931 and educated at Aldenham and The Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham. His command appointments have included a battery in the Commonwealth Brigade in Malaysia, Regimental Command in Germany and the United Kingdom (with an operational tour in Northern Ireland), Command of an Infantry Brigade and, as a Major General, Commandant of the Royal Military College of Science. Starting in 1983, Lord Vincent served for four years on the Army Board as the member responsible for the acquisition of new land weapon systems and equipment and he took up his first Chief of Staff appointment as Vice Chief of the Defence Staff in 1987. In this latter appointment he was directly involved in initiating high level military contacts with the former Soviet Union, where he travelled widely in response to the Gorbachev reforms. Lord Vincent was promoted Field Marshal and appointed Chief of Defence Staff in April 1991. He was then elected to the NATO appointment of Chairman of the Military Committee from 1993 to 1996 at a time when The Alliance forged closer relationships with the nations of central and eastern Europe and became increasingly involved with operations in former Yugoslavia, ultimately launching the NATO led IFOR operation in 1995. In addition to his military qualifications, he holds a DSc (Hons) from Cranfield University, is a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the Royal Aeronautical Society, Imperial College London and The City and Guilds of London Institute. He is a Freeman of the City of London, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Wheelwrights, an Aldenham School Governor and a Governor of the Ditchley Foundation. He is a member of the Jordanian Order of Merit and the United States Legion of Merit in the rank of Commander. Since finishing his full-time military career in 1996, he has been created a life peer and held the appointment of Master Gunner, St James's Park until 2001. He is also Chairman of the Council of Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Chairman of Insys Limited (formerly Hunting Defence Limited), and a Director of Vickers Defence Systems. He became President of The Defence Manufacturers Association in 2000 (Vice-President 1996) and President of the Council of University Military Education Committees in 1999. In 1998 he became Chancellor of Cranfield University and is President of the Cranfield Trust and Patron of the INSPIRE Charity Foundation. He is a Member of The Pilgrims. Has received the Order of the British Empire and is a Knight Commander of the British Empire. Today he is a Chancellor of Cranfield University.

Collier, Barron Gift
One of the founders of INTERPOL and largest landowner in Florida, for whom is named Collier County. Collier senior was chairman of Police Magazine; special police commissioner for New York, 1922-1928; treasurer, American Electric Railway Association, director, Empire Trust Company; Baltimore Commercial Bank; Bank of the Everglades; Florida Trust & Banking Company; Waldorf Astoria Incorporated; First National Bank of Arcadia, Florida; Inter-County Telephone & Telegraph Company; Manhattan Mercantile Corporation; Florida Railroad & Navigation Corporation; Florida Gulf Coast Hotels; Street Railways Advertising Company; and others. Collier was a governor of the George Washington/Sulgrave Institution and chaired the executive committee of James Monroe Memorial Association and Foundation.

Collins, Richard Henn
One of the leading judges at turn of the century. Justice of the Court of Appeals, Supreme Court of the Judicature, and member of the Privy Council. Master of the Rolls from 1901 to 1907.

Collins, Robert Moore
born 1867
A reporter for several important newspapers and worked as an editor in the Washington and New York offices of the Associated Press. He did chiefly political work for the Associated Press. He was the chief newsman for Reuters and the Associated Press for many stories coming out of the Orient.

Connelly, Joan Breton
A.B. in 1976 (Classics) from Princeton University. M.A. in 1979 of Bryn Mawr College and a Ph.D. in 1984 (Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology). Affiliations: Society for the Preservation of the Greek Heritage, Trustee; Society of Anitquaries of London; Royal Geographical Society, Explorers Club; Society of Women Geographers; Archaeological Institute of America; Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute (former trustee); Oxford Philological Society; Pilgrims of the United States. Fellowships/Honors: Honorary Citizenship, Peyia Municipality, Republic of Cyprus; Lillian Vernon Chair for Teaching Excellence, New York University; Appointed to the United States Cultural Property Advisory Committee by President George W. Bush, (February 2003); John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship; Visiting Fellowships All Souls College, Magdalen College and New College, Oxford; Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Fellowship; New York University Presidential (Mellon) Fellowship; New York University Golden Dozen Teaching Award; Metropolitan Museum of Art Classical Fellowship and Norbert Schimmel Fellowship.

Corbin, Henry Clark
Was a Northern Civil War combatant as a brigadier General of volunteers. He was detailed for duty in March 1877 at the Executive Mansion (White House) and was secretary of the Sitting Bull Commission. According to page 260 of the 1897-1942 Who Was Who, Corbin was "with President Garfield at the time he was shot and at his bedside at Elberon, where he died. In recognition of his services, and the part he took in war with Spain, Congress conferred upon him the rank of major General commanding the Atlantic Division, 1904."

Cornwallis, Lord
Knight of the British empire, directly descended from the original Lord Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805), who invaded America at the direction of the British Crown and fought many battles, some directly against George Washington. (Although he seemed to have opposed the heavy taxes England imposed on the Colonies) The most recent (3rd) Baron Cornwallis is Fiennes Neil Wykeham Cornwallis, born in 1921. The name on the Pilgrim probably referred to the second Baron Cornwallis.

Coudert, Frederic René
His father fled France during the revolution to escape the guillotine. Coudert and his brothers founded Coudert Brothers LLP in 1853 in NY. It would become a powerful law firm, which would still exist anno 2005. Coudert became a leading figure in New York’s legal, social and diplomatic circles. It is believed that he twice turned down appointments to the Supreme Court of the United States. He is also credited with helping to bring the Statue of Liberty to New York Harbor, raising funds and intervening to smooth over diplomatic entanglements. Today the firm has 27 offices in 18 countries.

Coudert, Frederic René, Jr.
Attended Browning and Morristown Schools in New York City; was graduated from Columbia University in 1918 and from its law school in 1922; served as a first lieutenant in the One Hundred and Fifth United States Infantry, Twenty-seventh Division, with overseas service, in 1917 and 1918; was admitted to the bar in 1923 and commenced practice in New York City; assistant United States attorney for the southern district of New York in 1924 and 1925; unsuccessful Republican candidate for district attorney of New York County in 1929; delegate to the Republican State conventions from 1930 to 1948; delegate to the Republican National Conventions 1936-1948; member of the State senate 1939-1946; elected as a Republican to the Eightieth and to the five succeeding Congresses (1947-1959); was not a candidate for renomination in 1958 to the Eighty-sixth Congress; engaged in the practice of law in New York City; member of State Commission on Governmental Operations of the city of New York 1959-1961; retired from the practice of law due to ill health and resided in New York City, where he died May 21, 1972.

Coudert, Alexis Carrel
Kid brother of Frederic Coudert Jr. Law clerk at the U.S. Supreme Court 1938-1939. Law professor at Columbia University. Director of French-American Banking Corporation, Peugeot Motors, Pellon Corporation, Unity Fire & General Insurance, and Planned Parenthood of Manhattan. 25 year managing partner of the Coudert Brothers.

Crankshaw, Sir Eric Norman Spencer
Army Lieutenant-Colonel, secretary of the Government Hospitality Fund, Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. Heavily involved with British empire building surrounding WWII. He met with many Pilgrims and organized some dinner parties.

Crooks, William C.
Sources: November 24, 2004, Greenwich Post (CT), obituary
Born in 1948. Educated at The Lawrenceville School for Forms I-V. He also attended Yale College and the University of Pennsylvania, and obtained a master of arts in international relations from the University of Pennsylvania, a J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School and an M.B.A. from The Wharton School of Business. He began his career as a lawyer with Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts in New York City before moving to the financial services business, most recently as a managing director with Morgan Joseph & Co. Inc., a New Yorkbased investment banking firm. A Greenwich resident since 1977, Crooks was known for his love of history and his devotion to the Greenwich Historical Society where he served as president from 1996 to 1998, and chairman until September 2004. Died in 2004. Member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Society of Colonial Wars, the Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York, the Descendants of the Founders of Ancient Windsor, the Society of the Founders of Norwich, The Military Society of the War of 1812, The Pilgrims, and the Sons of the American Revolution. Member of The Round Hill Club, the Racquet & Tennis Club in New York, the Yale Club of New York and The New York Farmers.

Cromwell, William Nelson
Prominent lawyer in New York, accountant with the New York law firm of Algernon S. Sullivan, partner in Sullivan and Cromwell 1879, established the William Nelson Cromwell Foundation. Could be one of the direct descendant of Oliver Cromwell, who is said to have been sponsored by the money changers in western Europe to take the throne of England in 1649.

Crossley, Sir Julian
hon. treasurer
Long-time chairman of the Barclays Bank. Member of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Club.

Crowe, William J., Jr.
At the beginning of the Great Depression, Crowe's father moved the family to Oklahoma City. Crowe's Naval career began at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, from which he graduated in 1947. From 1954 to 1955 he served as Assistant to the Naval Aide of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. From 1956 to 1958 Crowe served as Executive Officer of the submarine USS Wahoo. In 1958 he served as an aide to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations. In 1960 Crowe took command of USS Trout, homeported in Charleston, South Carolina, and served as Commanding Officer of that boat until 1962. From there, Crowe earned a Master's Degree and Ph.D. from Princeton University, returning to service in 1966 to take command of Submarine Division 31, homeported in San Diego, California. Appointed Senior Adviser to the Vietnamese Navy Riverine Force in 1970. Promoted to Rear Admiral and made Deputy Director, Strategic Plans, Policy, Nuclear Systems and NSC Affairs Division, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations in 1973. Director, East Asia and Pacific Region, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense 1975-1976. Commander Middle East Force 1976-1977. Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Plans and Policy 1977-1980. Commander in Chief, Allied Forces, Southern Europe 1980-1983. Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command 1983-1985. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1985-1989. Chairman of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board 1993-1994. Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1994-1997. Chairman of two Accountability Review Boards charged with investigating the bombings of the embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam 1998-1999. He has sat on the Boards of Texaco, Merrill Lynch, Pfizer, Norfolk Southern Corporation, General Dynamics, and GlobalOptions, Inc. At present, Crowe serves as the Chairman of the Board of Visitors for the International Programs Center of Oklahoma University. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations' Task Force on Emergency Responders. Received the Medal of Freedom.

Cullman, Joseph F. III
Trustee Bank of England 1958-1970, president and CEO Philip Morris Company (sixties), director Ford Motor Company, IBM, Bankers Trust Company and others. Cullman is well-known for stating categorically "I do not believe that cigarettes are hazardous to one's health", which he said in a 1971 interview after the TV tobacco advertising ban was begun. He is a member of the Peace Parks foundation.

Curzon, Lord George
A brilliant student, at Eton College he won a record number of academic prizes before entering Oxford University in 1878. He was elected president of the Oxford Union in 1880 and although he failed to achieve a first he was made a fellow of All Souls College in 1883. A member of the Conservative Party, Curzon was elected MP for Southport in 1886. It was a safe Tory seat and Curzon neglected his parliamentary duties to travel the world. This material provided the material for Russia in Central Asia (1889), Persia and the Persian Question (1892) and Problems of the Far East (1894). In November, 1891, Marquis of Salisbury appointed Curzon as his secretary of state for India. Curzon lost office when Earl of Rosebery formed a Liberal Government in 1894. After the 1895 General Election, the Conservative Party regained power and Curzon was rewarded with the post of under secretary for foreign affairs. Three years later the Marquis of Salisbury granted him the title, Baron Curzon of Kedleston, and appointed him Viceroy of India. Curzon introduced a series of reforms that upset his civil servants. He also clashed with Lord Kitchener (Freemasonry grand master), who became commander-in-chief of the Indian Army, in 1902. Arthur Balfour, the new leader of the Conservative Party, began to have doubts about Curzon and in 1905 he was forced out of office. Curzon returned to England where he led the campaign against women's suffrage in the House of Lords. In 1908 he helped establish the Anti-Suffrage League and eventually became its president. In 1916 the new prime minister, David Lloyd George, invited Curzon into his War Cabinet. Curzon served as leader of the House of Lords but refused to support the government's decision to introduce the 1918 Qualification of Women Act. Despite Curzon's objections, it was passed by the Lords by 134 votes to 71. Curzon was appointed foreign secretary in 1919 and when Andrew Bonar Law resigned as prime minister in May, 1923, Curzon was expected to become the new prime minister. However, the post went to Stanley Baldwin instead. He continued as foreign secretary until retiring from politics in 1924.

Cutting, Robert Fulton
Chairman City & Suburban Homes Co., surrounded by other Pilgrims in daily life.

Davis, John William
Democratic congressman from West Virginia 1911-1913. U. S. Solicitor general 1913-1918. Ambassador to Great Britain 1918-1921. Present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference. President of the American English-Speaking Union. Chairman Davis, Polk and Wardwell law firm (clients included J.P. Morgan and Company, and U.S. Steel). Founding president of the Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1933. Other founders of the CFR were Elihu Root and Paul Warburg. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1933-1955. Rejected appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court 1922. Democratic presidential candidate 1924. President of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1931-1932. Director American Telephone & Telegraph. Trustee Rockefeller Foundation. Davis supported the Crusaders, which was one of the Fascist front groups trying to overthrow FDR and his New Deal. The main organization was American Liberty League. He was also a main organizer of the anti-New Deal Liberty league against FDR.

Davison, Henry Pomeroy
Jekyll Island meeting 1910. His son was in the Skull & Bones class of 1920, just as a couple of other members of the Davison family. This family is intermarried with the Aldrich, Rockefeller, Peabody and Stillman family (all Pilgrims). Involved with the Red Cross during WWI and received at least one 2 million dollar donation from co-Pilgrim George F. Baker.

Dawes, Charles G.
exec. committee
Comptroller of the Currency 1897-1901, organized the Central Trust Company of Illinois at Chicago in 1902, chairman of the General Purchasing Board of the Allied Expeditionary Forces during World War I (decided who got the contracts), the 1924 Dawes plan to save Germany's economy from total collapse was named after him, Nobel Peace Prize 1925, vice President of the United States 1925-1929, ambassador to Great Britain 1929-1932, chairman Reconstruction Finance Corporation starting in 1932

Dean, Arthur Hobson
John Dulles' Law Partner in Sullivan & Cromwell. Special Ambassador to Korea (1953-1954). Director Council on Foreign Relations 1955-1972. Attended the 1957 Bilderberg meeting. Chairman of the U.S. Delegation on Nuclear Arms Testing, Geneva, Switzerland in 1962. Vietnam War hawk. Member of Committee for An Effective and Durable Peace in Asia. New York Social Register. Century Club. Pacific Union Club. Member of the Foreign Policy Association. Director of the UN Association and Lazard Funds, Inc. Trustee Carnegie Foundation. Director or trustee of the Japan Society.

Debs, Richard A.
CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; member of the FED's Federal Open Market Committee; Founding president of Morgan Stanley International and continues as a member of its International Advisory Board; vice chairman of the US Saudi Arabian Business Council; chairman and a member of the New York Stock Exchange International Committee; member of the Group of Thirty; U.S. chairman of the Bretton Woods Commission; served as an advisor to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and the Russian American Bankers Forum; trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; chairman of the Board of Trustees of the American University of Beirut until 2005 (joined in the board in 1976); chairman emeritus of Carnegie Hall, where he continues to serve on the Executive Committee, and a trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Institute of International Education, Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies, and director of several international business and financial corporations. Trustee of the Institute of International Education; He is also a member of the Economic Club of New York, Japan Society, American Council on Germany, and Council on Foreign Relations. He was a Fulbright Scholar in Egypt and a Ford Foundation Fellow, and holds a PhD from Princeton, a JD from Harvard Law School and an AMP from the Harvard Business School.

Depew, Chauncey Mitchell
co-founder & exec. committee
Yale Skull & Bones 1856. Admitted to the bar in 1858. United States Minister to Japan. Twice elected U.S. senator from New York. Colonel and judge advocate of the fifth division of the New York National Guard 1873-1881. President of the New York Central & Hudson River railroad 1885-1899 and it's later chairman. Co-founder Pilgrim Society. Member of J.P. Morgan's elite Corsair Club.

Dillon, Clarence
Son of a Polish Jew. Harvard. Studied the methods of the money changers as Rothschild and Morgan. Together with James Forrestal he set up Foreign Securities Corporation in 1915 to finance the French Government’s purchases of munitions in the United States. Established National Cash Register. Bought Dodge Brothers. Saved Goodyear from bankruptcy. Bought a majority interest in William A. Read & Company in 1916. Asked by Bernard Baruch (a very important banker at the time), chairman of the War Industries Board, to become his assistant chairman at the War Industries Board. Changed the name of W.A. Read & Company into Dillon, Read & Company in 1920. James Forrestal joined Dillon, Read & Company in 1923. General William H. Draper Jr. joined the firm in 1926 and described Forrestal already as the #2 man, right below Dillon. In January 1926, Dillon Read created the German Credit and Investment Corporation in Newark, New Jersey and Berlin, Germany. That same year, Dillon Read created the Vereinigte Stahlwerke (German Steel Trust), incorporating the Thyssen family interests under the direction of New York and London finance. Thyssen, together with banker Hjalmar Schacht, were the first major sponsors of Hitler. At the same time, Prescott Bush and the Harrimans, friends of Dillon, set up the Union Banking Corporation with Thyssen. William H. Draper, Jr. was made director, vice president, and assistant treasurer of the German Credit and Investment Corp. His business was short-term loans and financial management tricks for Thyssen and the German Steel Trust. Clarence Dillon was brought before the 1932-1934 Pecora Commission, which was established to investigate the causes of the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The Dillon Read investment bank, which would become one of the largest of its time, was one of the companies that made large loans to Nazi Germany in the 1930s. Nicholas Brady, a Knight of Malta and Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay visitor, joined Dillon, Read & Company in 1954, eventually rising to the chairmanship under C. Douglas Dillon. In 1957, Fortune Magazine listed Dillon as one of the richest men in the United States, with a fortune then estimated to be from $150 to $200 million.

Dillon, Clarence Douglas
Son of the above Nazi trader Clarence Dillon and grandson of a Polish Jew. Born on a business trip in Geneva. At the Pine Lodge School in Lakehurst, N.J., Dillon's schoolmates included Nelson, Laurance and John Rockefeller III. Went to Harvard and graduated in 1931. In 1931 his father gave him $185,000 to buy a seat on the New York Stock Exchange. Director of United States & Foreign Securities Corporation and the United States & International Securities Corporation 1937-1953. Director of Dillon Read & Company 1937-1938, a company deeply involved with the Nazi trade at that moment. Became vice president of Dillon Read & Company in 1938. Served in the Navy during WWII. Chairman of Dillon Read & Company since 1946, but left after a short period. Trustee Harvard University's Board of Overseers 1952-1958 and served a while as its president. US Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France 1953-1957. Here he became a good friend of Jean Monnet, one of the primary builders of a united Europe with numerous connections to Wall Street and London bankers. Monnet also was a founding member of the private intelligence group Le Cercle. Nicholas Brady, a Knight of Malta and Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay visitor, joined Dillon, Read & Company in 1954, eventually rising to the chairmanship under C. Douglas Dillon. Was visited by Jean Monnet in 1959, who came to the US to attend the funeral of his good friend John Foster Dulles. Again chairman of Dillon Read & Company 1960-1985. United States treasury secretary 1961-1965. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1965-1976. His daughter became Princess Joan de Luxembourg, after having married Prince Charles of Luxembourg in 1967. Charles was a son of Felix of Bourbon, Prince of Parma (direct descendant of Henri IV; president of the Luxembourg Red Cross between 1923 and 1932 and again between 1947 and 1969). Chairman Brookings Institution 1968-1975. Chairman Rockefeller Foundation 1971-1975. Vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1976-1978. Trustee Metropolitan Museum of Art 1977-1983. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Member Royal Institute for International Affairs. Director Chase Manhattan Bank and American Telephone & Telegraph. Member of the International Advisory Council of Chase Manhattan. Owner of France’s Haut-Brion vineyards. Received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1989.

Dilworth, Joseph Richardson
Yale Skull & Bones 1938, chairman of Rockefeller Center, Rockefeller Family & Associates since 1958, director Chase Manhattan Bank, International Basic Economy Corporation, Selected Risk Investments, R.H. Macy, Squibb Pharmaceuticals, Omega Fund and Diamond Shamrock Corporation, trustee of both Yale University and Rockefeller University, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Dinkey, Alva Clymer
From water boy in the steel mills to self-made millionaire, first job was in the Edgar Thompson Works, one of the plants of the Carnegie Steel Company, became a telegraph operator, a machinist and electrician, president of the Carnegie Steel Company 1903-1915, president of the Midvale Steel Company at Nicetown.

Dorrance, John Thompson, Jr
died 1989
Chairman of Campbell Soup Corporation (founded by his father). Today he and his family are multimillionaires and billionaires.

Douglas, Donald W.
Donald Wills Douglas, the second son of an assistant cashier of the National Park Bank, was born in Brooklyn, New York, April 6, 1892, and started his education at Trinity Chapel School in New York City. At the age of 17, Donald Douglas entered the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis where he spent much of his time building and testing model airplanes. Left the Naval Academy in 1912. He soon realized he needed to learn more about his chosen career field and completed the four-year bachelor of science program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in only two years. Because of his academic performance, Douglas was immediately hired at MIT as an assistant professor in aeronautics. Worked for different aircraft companies. Eventually, in 1921, he founded Douglas Aircraft, which became a world leader in the aircraft building industry. In 1932, he started building the DC-1 and launched his career as a builder of transports. By 1940, sales of DC-2 and DC-3 transports and their military derivatives rose to nearly $61 million. Co-founder of the RAND Corporation in 1948, a not-for-profit private institute created out of Douglas Aircraft. Produced some 45,000 aircraft in WWII. Donald Wills Douglas Sr. was company president until 1957, when his son, Donald Douglas Jr., took over that position. Donald Douglas Sr. remained chairman of the board. At the age of 75, on April 28, 1967, Douglas merged his company with the McDonnell Aircraft Company and retired. He remained honorary chairman of the McDonnell Douglas board until his death on Feb. 1, 1981.

Douglas, Lewis Williams
Fought in WWI in the artillery from 1917 to 1919, instructor of history at Amherst College in 1920, engaged in mining and general business, member of the Arizona State house of representatives 1923-1925, elected as a Democrat to the Seventieth Congress, reelected to the three succeeding Congresses 1927-1933, director of the budget by President Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1934, vice president and member of the board of a chemical company 1934-1938, principal and vice chancellor of McGill University, Montreal, Canada 1938-1939, president of an insurance company 1940-1947, director Council on Foreign Relations 1940-1964, chairman of the board on leave of absence 1947-1959, deputy administrator of the War Shipping Administration 1942-1944, United States Ambassador to Great Britain 1947-1950, director General Motors Corporation 1944-1965, chairman and director, Southern Arizona Bank & Trust Company 1949-1966, appointed by the President to head Government Study of Foreign Economic Problems in 1953, member, President’s Task Force on American Indians 1966-1967, director International Nickel Company of Canada, director Continental Oil Company. His daughter, Sharman Douglas, supposedly had a 2-year lesbian affair with Queen Elizabeth II's younger sister, Princess Margaret Windsor. She also married Pilgrim Andrew Hay from 1968 to 1977.

Drum, Hugh Aloysius
Graduated from Boston College in 1898. Joining the Army, he was made a second lieutenant in the 12th infantry. Climbing quickly up the ranks, he became assistant Chief of Staff to General Pershing in France. In 1918 he was promoted to colonel, and became Chief of Staff of the First Army, AEF. Following the war Colonel Drum was engaged in various military schools. He was promoted to Major General by 1931 and sent to Honolulu to serve as commander. In 1940 he was promoted to Lieutenant General in charge of the New York national guard. From 1944 until his death, he was the president of Empire State Inc. During his career he was awarded the Silver Star, Distinguished Service Medal, and the Croix de Guerre.

Duke, James Buchanan
James Buchanan Duke goes to New York to develop the new industry of pre-rolled, packaged cigarettes. He establishes the American Tobacco Company with money from New York city financiers, especially Oliver Payne (advisor - intermarried with the Whitneys) and William Collins Whitney (Skull & Bones 1863 - comes from a family of Pilgrims) and starts buying out the competition. Duke made a deal with British Tobacco companies not to invade the European market and the British promised not to invade the American market. This deal lasted until about 1901. In 1905, James Duke co-founded the Southern Power Company, now known as Duke Power, one of the companies making up Duke Energy, Inc. Within two decades, this company is supplying electricity to more than 300 cotton mills and various other factories, electric lines, and cities and towns primarily in the Piedmont region of North and South Carolina. In 1911, the United States Supreme Court orders the dissolution of the tobacco trust.

Duke, Angier Biddle
From the family who owns or owned the American Tobacco Company, Duke Power, Duke Endowment and Duke University. Angier has been ambassador to El Salvador 1952-1953, chief of protocol to JFK and LBJ, ambassador to Spain 1965-1968, Denmark 1968-1969, Vietnam 1973, and Morocco 1979-1981, chairman U.S.-Japan Foundation 1981-1986, became president of the Council of American Ambassadors in 1992, decorated by Great Britain, France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Morocco and Greece.
Born: New York City, November 30, 1915
Student, Yale University, 1937
LL.D., Iona College, 1957
LL.D., Duke University, 1969
L.H.D., Long Island University, 1967
LLD (hon.), Rocky Mountain College, 1991
LLD (hon.), Drexel University, 1992
President Duke International Corp., New York City, 1945-48; appointed 2d secretary U.S. Foreign Service, 1949; with Am. embassy, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1949, special assistant to ambassador Madrid, 1951; U.S. ambassador to El Salvador, 1952-53; vice president CARE, 1958-60; chief of protocol White House and Department State, 1961-65; ambassador to Spain, 1965-68; chief of protocol Department State, 1968; ambassador to Denmark, 1968-69; commissioner civic affairs and pub. events New York City, 1973-76; chairman New York City Dem. Committee, 1976-77; president The Spanish Institute, New York City, 1977-79, chairman, 1983-87, New York State Council on Ethnic Affairs, 1978-79; president National Committee on Am. Foreign Policy, Inc., New York City, 1978-79; ambassador to Morocco, 1979-81; chairman U.S.-Japan Foundation, New York City, 1981-86
Career Related
President International Rescue Committee, 1954-60; chairman Dem. State Committee Nationalities and Intergroup Relations, 1960, Appeal of Conscience Foundation, 1974—.
Decorated by governments Great Britain, France, Spain, Haiti, Morocco, Sweden, Greece and Denmark.
Commissioner Long Island State Park, 1955-61; trustee Long Island University, 1981-90, chancellor Southampton College of Long Island University, 1986-90; chairman World Affairs Council Long Island, 1981—. Served from private to major Army of the United States, 1940-45; officer in charge Paris section Air Transport Command, 1945.
Member Sons of the American Revolution, Council Foreign Relations, Am. Academy Diplomacy (director 1994), Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training (director 1994—), Foreign Policy Association, Freedom House, Council Am. Ambassadors (president 1992—), UN Association of New York (board directors 1995—), The Pilgrims, Society Colonial Wars, Duke Family Association North Carolina (chairman 1988—), Brook Club (New York City), River Club (New York City), Racquet and Tennis Club 9N.Y.C.), Bucks Club (London).
son of Angier Buchanan and Cordelia (Biddle) D.; married Robin Chandler Lynn, May 12, 1962; 1 son, Angier Biddle Junior; children by previous marriage: A. St. George B. Pony, Maria-Luisa B. Duke, Dario B.
Home: New York New York
Died April 29, 1995.

Dulles, John Foster
Brother of Allen W. Dulles; Princeton and George Washington University; Sullivan & Cromwell 1911-1916. Married Janet Pomeroy Avery in 1912. Special agent for the Department of State in Central America in 1917; Captain and Major in the United States Army Intelligence Service 1917-1918; assistant to chairman War Trade Board 1918; present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference; Rejoined Sullivan & Cromwell in 1919. Became senior partner in Sullivan & Cromwell in 1926. Polish Plan of Financial Stabilization 1927; American representative of the Berlin Debt Conferences 1933; member of the United States delegation to the San Francisco Conference on World Organization 1945; adviser to Secretary of State at Council of Foreign Ministers in London 1945; Moscow and London 1947 and Paris 1949; chairman of the board of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; In 1945, Dulles participated in the San Francisco Conference (at which Nelson Rockefeller played an important role), worked as adviser to Arthur H. Vandenberg, and helped draft the preamble to the United Nations Charter. Representative to the General Assembly of the United Nations 1946-1950; David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pg. 149: "I received a visit one morning in early spring 1947 from the new president of the Carnegie Endowment for International peace... After the usual pleasantries Hiss told me I had been elected to the board of the Carnegie Endowment, and he hoped I would agree to serve... I was flattered to be asked to join the Endowment's prestigious board, which included such luminaries as General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Thomas J. Watson, the founder of IBM. John Foster Dulles, the eminent international lawyer, was chairman... I had known him and his family since my college years. Foster had a reputation of being cold, austere, and puritanical, but the man I knew had a sense of humor and could be a wonderful companion. His daughter Lillias had been part of a small group of friends during my college years and one of Peggy's closest friends. In fact, when I was courting Peggy in the 1930s, she always stayed with the Dulleses at their New York town house. When I mentioned Hiss's offer to Nelson, he told me in confidence that a high-level FBI official had warned him there was reliable information indicating Hiss was a Soviet agent. I reported this to Foster, who said he didn't believe it... I accepted his judgment and joined the endowment's board in May 1947. A year later the spy charges against Alger Hiss would become front-page news." chairman of the United States delegation in Paris 1948; trustee of Rockefeller Foundation; Deeply religious and a member of the Presbyterian Church. His son, Avery Dulles, joined the Society of Jesus in 1946 and became a priest in that order in 1956 (teaches and lectures regularly at Fordham University); member of the New York State Banking Board 1946-1949; Republican to the United States Senate July 7, 1949 to November 8, 1949; United States representative to the Fifth General Assembly of the United Nations 1950; In 1950, Dulles was co-founder of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA and served as its chairman for a while. chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation 1950-1952; consultant to Secretary of State Dean Acheson, a long time associate of John J. McCloy and a Pilgrims Society member, from 1951 to 1952. Acheson was seen as the most influential person in the Truman Administration; set up the Population Council with the Rockefellers in 1952; appointed Secretary of State by President Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953-1959. Together with Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson he advised Eisenhower on who to pick for the Jackson Committee in January 1953. This committee's recommendations transformed the Psychological Strategy Board to the Operations Coordinating Board (OCB). Seen as the strongest person in the Eisenhower cabinet. In 1956 Dulles strongly opposed the Anglo-French invasion of the Suez Canal, Egypt (October-November 1956). However, by 1958 he was an outspoken opponent of President Gamal Abdel Nasser and stopped him from receiving weapons from the United States. Died in 1959 and Jean Monnet, a very close friend and business partner, came to the US to attend his funeral.

Dulles, Allen Welsh
Brother of John F. Dulles. Princeton up to 1916. Attended Cap & Gown events, according to Kay Griggs, just as Donald Rumsfeld, William Colby, Frank Carlucci, James Baker, George Griggs, and George P. Shultz (August 3, 2005, Rense). Sent to Bern, Switzerland to work under State Department senior Hugh Wilson (Skull & Bones 1909) to collect political information on Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1916-1918. Joins his older brother, John Foster Dulles (Pilgrim), and David Bruce (Pilgrim) as members of President Woodrow Wilson's staff at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. Became a partner in Sullivan & Cromwell from 1927. Director of Schroder Co. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1933. Secretary Council on Foreign Relations 1933-1944. In May 1941 he urges the U.S. to enter World War II. Recruited by OSS intelligence chief and Knight of Malta Colonel William J. Donovan 1941. Sets up and runs a spy post in Bern, Switserland 1942-1945. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1944-1946. Said to have been involved in Operation Paperclip where about many German scientists and their families were secretly imported into the United States and placed into the Military-Industrial complex. First secretary of the American Committee on a United Europe (ACUE), which was established in 1949 by Duncan Sandys (son-in-law Churchill), William Donovan (first chair), and Joseph Retinger. It clandestinely funded pro-European integration and anti-communist movements in Europe. President Council on Foreign Relations 1946-1950. Director Central Intelligence Agency 1953-1961. Member of President Johnson’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy 1963-1964 (forerunner of the Warren Commission). Primary United Fruit Company shareholder. Dulles International Airport in Washington, D.C. is named after him. Member of the Pilgrims Society and the Order of Malta. Seems to have been a member of the 'Knights Templar' (together with Kermit Roosevelt and Frank Wisner), an elite intelligence group within the CIA.

Duncan, William Butler
Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, New York banker 1851-75, president of Great Western Insurance Company during the American civil war, sat together with J.P. Morgan on the Advisory Committee of Robinson & Cox (attorneys for United States Lloyds, one of the most powerful institutions of the City of London), the only American member of London's exclusive club, the Travelers (since 1868, when relations between the U.S. and England were strained over the Alabama claims), president and later chairman of the board of the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, didn't attend a 1908 Pilgrim dinner (as president) due to sickness.

Dunn, Gano
exec. committee
President American Institute of Electrical Engineers 1911- 1912, president J.G. White Engineering Corporation in 1913 (founded by a Pilgrim), member War Department Nitrate Commission 1916-1918, chairman State Department Special Committee on Submarine Cables 1918, chairman National Research Council 1923-1928, executive committee member World Power Conference 1936, director Guaranty Trust Company, Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company and Radio Corporation of America and National Broadcasting Company, member U.S. Patent Office advisory committee, trustee Greenwich Savings Bank, trustee of Barnard College, consultant National Defense Committee, president of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science, vice-president of the Pan American Society of the U.S.

Du Pont Copeland, Lammot
Harvard, worked in the laboratory of the Fabrics and Finishings Department at DuPont’s Fairfield. In 1942 he replaced his father, Charles Copeland, on DuPont’s Board of Directors and was appointed to the Board’s Finance Committee. He served on the Development Department’s postwar planning board during World War II and became secretary in 1947. Copeland was named vice president and chair of the Finance Committee in 1954 and was appointed to the Executive Committee in 1959. Copeland served as DuPont’s 11th president from 1962 to 1967. Copeland retired as president in 1967. He remained as chairman of the Board of Directors until 1971 and continued to sit on the board until 1982. Du Pont was also a director of Wilmington Trust Company, a director of Christiana Securities, father in law to James Biddle, who married his daughter Louisa. James Biddle is a direct descendant of Nicholas Biddle, head of the British affiliated (Rothschild-Windsor) second Bank of the United States. The du Pont family was the largest funder of The American Liberty League, the main institute behind the 1934 fascist plot against FDR. Lammot, for example, donated at least 15.000 dollar to The American Liberty League and another 5.000 dollar to similar organisations.

Eells, Richard
Received A.B., M.A. and LL.D. degrees from Whitman College and Princeton University and is presently Professor of Business (Emeritus) at Columbia University, and Special Advisor to the President of Columbia University; also special advisor to the president of the New York Botanical Garden. During his past 15 years service at Columbia University he was Director of Studies of the Modern Corporation, adjunct professor of Business, and councillor to the Dean of Graduate School of Business. Previously, manager of Public Policy Research, General Electric Company (NYC) for ten years. Field director, Near East College Association (AUB and others). Following military service in the USAF, he was Chief of the Division of Aeronautics and Holder of the Guggenheim Chair of Aeronautics, The Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.). He has received grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and Sloan Foundation and has served as consultant to IBM, General Electric, Rockefeller Bros. Fund, and others. He is the author and co-author of fifteen books on corporate social policy matters (and spionage) and the editor of thirty-five volumes on business matters.

Ekblom, Harry E.
Retired as chairman and CEO of European-American Banking Corporation in 2002. He had been a member of the board since 1984. Partner in Ekblom & Ekblom LLC and president of Harry E. Ekblom & Co. Inc. He is the former vice chairman of A.T. Hudson & Co. Inc. Director Harris & Harris Group Inc.

Eliot, Ellsworth, Jr
Yale; joined the surgical staff of Presbyterian Hospital in 1893; he remained at the Hospital as an Attending Surgeon until 1918 and was thereafter consultant in surgery until his death. He was Chief of Surgery of Vanderbilt Clinic of P&S from 1895 to 1900 and at various times held surgical professorships at both P&S and the Cornell University Medical College.

Eno, William Phelps
Yale Skull & Bones 1882. Director of the Central Trust Company of New-York. An American businessman responsible for many of the earliest innovations in road safety and traffic control. He is sometimes known as the "Father of traffic safety". Though automobiles were rare until Eno was an older man, horse-drawn carriages were already causing significant traffic problems in urban areas like Eno's home town of New York City.

Esher, Viscount Reginald
Usually described as "secretive" or "mysterious" together with "lot's of influence". Wrote confidential memoranda for Queen Victoria. Supposedly had bizarre sexual interests and stood in contact with the Rothschild family. A British statesman who stood in close contact with Pilgrim Henry Morgenthau Jr.'s father.

Evans, James H.
University of Chicago Law School, high positions at Reuben H. Donnelley Corp., Dun & Bradstreet Inc., and the Seamen's bank for Savings, in the navy during WWII, chairman 1965 Red Cross Campaign for Greater New York, chairman of the Union Pacific Corporation, director Citicorp, AT&T, Bristol-Myers, General Motors Corp. and Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., governor Foreign Policy Association, trustee Rockefeller Brothers Fund, University of Chicago and the American Youth Foundation, Bohemian Grove visitor.

Fairhaven, Lord
Had mining and railroad interests in the United States, which were created by his father. Much of the American fortune, which the 1st Lord Fairhaven inherited, was energetically deployed in the collection of works of art and the Abbey is now the permanent home of an outstandingly rich collection of furniture, pictures and art objects. Lord Fairhaven was also involved with landscape gardening.

Farish, William Stamps III
born 1939
Farish is an American millionaire. Owner of a trust company in Houston, Texas called W.S. Farish & Co. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom 2001-2004. Member of the Council of American Ambassadors. Horse-breeder. Chairman of Churchill Downs. Major Republican Party donor and a family friend of President George W. Bush for several decades. He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Kentucky in 2003. When George Bush was elected vice president in 1980, Texas mystery man William Stamps Farish III took over management of all of George Bush's personal wealth in a "blind trust." Known as one of the richest men in Texas, Will Farish keeps his business affairs under the most intense secrecy. Only the source of his immense wealth is known, not its employment. Will Farish has long been Bush's closest friend and confidante. He is also the unique private host to Britain's Queen Elizabeth: Farish owns and boards the studs which mate with the Queen's mares. That is her public rationale when she comes to America and stays in Farish's house. On March 25, 1942, U.S. Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold announced that William Stamps Farish (grandfather of the President's money manager) had pleaded "no contest" to charges of criminal conspiracy with the Nazis. Farish was the principal manager of a worldwide cartel between Standard Oil of New Jersey and the I.G. Farben concern. The merged enterprise had opened the Auschwitz slave labor camp on June 14, 1940, to produce artificial rubber and gasoline from coal.

Faulkner, Sir Eric Odin
Educated at Bradfield and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, lieutenant-colonel of the Royal Artillery, chairman Union Discount Co. 1959-1970, chairman Glyn, Mills & Co., chairman of Lloyd’s Bank (City of London), governor Hudson's Bay Co., director of Vickers, advisory director of Unilever, negotiated with rebel Rhodesian leader Ian Smith in 1965 at the directions of the Prime-Minister of England, chairman British Bankers' Association 1972-1973 and 1980-1984, chairman Committee of London Clearing Bankers from 1972-1974, chairman Industrial Society 1973-1976, Order of the British Empire 1974, organized the formation of the City Communications Organisation in 1976 (City of London interests).

Field, Marshall
Owned Marshall Field & Company which had factories in the U.S., Europe, China and Australia. He owned stocks and bonds in about one hundred and fifty corporations, and he was a director of many. He owned many millions of bonds and stocks in railroads. The history of many of them reeked with thefts of public and private money; corruption of common councils, of legislatures, Congress and of administrative officials; land grabbing, fraud, illegal transactions, violence and oppression not only of their immediate workers, but of the entire population. He owned Baltimore & Ohio stock; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe; Chicago & Northwestern, and tens of millions more of the stock or bonds of fifteen other railroads. He also owned an immense assortment of the stocks of a large number of trusts. The affairs of these trusts have been shown in court, at some time or other, as overflowing with fraud, the most glaring oppressions, and violations of law.

Flagler, Henry Morrison
His mother was from the Harkness family, worked at L.G. Harkness and Company, partner in the newly organized D. M. Harkness and Company in 1952, married married Mary Harkness in 1853, founded the Flagler and York Salt Company in 1862, the end of the Civil War caused a drop in the demand for salt and the Flagler and York Salt Company collapsed, bringing him heavily into debt, after borrowing money he reentered the grain business as a commission merchant and became acquainted with John D. Rockefeller, Rockefeller, Andrews and Flagler start Standard Oil in 1870 (with a loan from National City Bank of Cleveland) and two years later it will dominate the US oil market, Flagler later goes into the railroad business and becomes the second largest land owner in Florida.

Folsom, Frank Marion
Born in Washington state in 1894. Enlisted in the Army in 1917 for duty during WWI. Following the war he used his natural salesman skills in a variety of retail positions. Vice president of Montgomery Ward 1933-1940. National Defense Advisory Commission 1940-1941. Chief procurement officer for the U.S. Navy at the Office of Production Management 1941-1943. Here he became a good friend of David Sarnoff. Involved with planning for the D-Day invasion until late 1943. Vice president of the Radio Corporation of America 1943-1949, which was owned by Sarnoff. After the war, Sarnoff wanted to introduce B&W television as soon as possible, and he put Frank Folsom in charge of marketing. The 630TS television was introduced in 1946 at a cost of $375. President of the Radio Corporation of America 1949-1957. During this time the major events that took place at RCA were the FCC's adoption of RCA's color TV standard, and RCA's marketing of color TV receivers starting with the CT-100 in 1954. Vice chairman and chairman of the RCA 1957-1961. Remained on the board of directors until his death in 1970.

Foot, Hugh Mackintosh
Baron Caradon. Son of solicitor and Liberal Party MP Isaac Foot, and brother of the MP Sir Dingle Foot, the life peer Lord Foot, and Labour Party MP and former party leader Michael Foot. He was the father of the late Paul Foot, a journalist. During the Second World War, he was British Military Administrator of Cyrenaica, 1943 then Colonial Secretary of Cyprus, 1943-1945. After the War, he served as Colonial Secretary of Jamaica, 1945-1947, Chief Secretary for Nigeria, 1947-1950 and Captain General and Governor in Chief of Jamaica, 1951-1957. He returned to Cyprus as the last colonial Governor and Commander in Chief, 1957-1960. In 1961, he became British Ambassador to the United Nations Trusteeship Council. After Harold Wilson won the 1964 election, Foot became Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and British Ambassador to the United Nations, 1964-1970. After his retirement, he became a Visiting Fellow at Harvard University and Princeton University. Foot was created a life peer as Baron Caradon, of St Cleer in the County of Cornwall, in 1964.

Forbes, Malcolm Stevenson, Sr.
Son of the Forbes Magazine founder. A 1941 graduate of Princeton University. Publisher of Forbes magazine 1964-1990. Legendary for his lavish lifestyle, his private Capitalist Tool jet, his Highlander yachts, and huge art collection. Has a substantial collection of Harley Davidson motorbikes. Member of the Bohemian Grove and the Pilgrims Society. Member of the American Society of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.

Forbes, Malcolm Stevenson "Steve", Jr.
Princeton. President and editor-in-chief Forbes Magazine. Director Americas Society. Lost the 1996 presidential nomination to Bob Dole. Lost the 2000 presidential nomination to George W. Bush.

Forbes, Christopher
Christopher Forbes received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Art History from Princeton University in 1972. Director of Forbes, Inc. since 1977. Corporate Secretary at Forbes 1981-1989. Appointed to the Board of Regents of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. in 1987. Vice-chairman of Forbes Inc. since 1989. He is responsible for Forbes’ advertising and promotion departments. Director of Senesco Technologies since 1999 (genetech). Director of Raffles Holdings. Sits on the Boards of The New York Historical Society, The Newark Museum, The Business Committee for the Arts, The Brooklyn Museum, The Friends of New Jersey State Museum, The New York Academy of Art, The Victorian Society in America, The Princess Margarita Foundation and the Prince Wales Foundation. He is also a member of the Board of Advisors of The Princeton University Art Museum, a National Trustee of the Baltimore Museum of Art, and serves on the Advisory Committee of the Department of European Decorative Arts of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Member of the Knickerbocker, The Century Association, The Brook, Essex Hunt, Grolier, American Society of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.

Forbes, Sir Ian
Joined the Royal Navy in 1965. Graduated from the Royal Air Force Staff College Bracknell in 1983. Graduated from the Royal College Defense Studies in 1994. Commander UK Maritime Contribution to NATO, Kosovo, HMS Kingfisher, HMS Diomede, HMS Chatham, HMS Invincible. Flag officer surface flotilla in 2000. Supreme allied Commander transformation NATO, Norfolk, Virginia, 2003—2004. Deputy supreme allied Commander Atlantic, 2004. Decorated knight Commander of the Bath, Commander of the British Empire, U.S. Legion of Merit, and a recipient of the Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service. Member of the board of governors of the Portsmouth High School for Girls. Chairman of the board of governors of Eastbourne College. Member of The Pilgrims and the Windsor Leadership Trust.

Franklin, George S., Jr.
His father was a CFR director. Franklin Jr. attended Harvard University and was a roommate of David Rockefeller. First secretary of the American Committee on a United Europe (ACUE), which was established in 1949 by Duncan Sandys (son-in-law Churchill), William Donovan (first chair), Allen Dulles (first vice-chair), and Joseph Retinger. The ACUE clandestinely funded pro-European integration movements and anti-communist organizations. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1953 to 1971. Franklin was the first secretary of the Atlantic Council of the United States, co-founded by Pilgrim Dean Acheson. Franklin was a co-founder of the Trilateral Commission in 1973, together with David Rockefeller, and became a secretary of this Commission in later years.

Fraser, Leon
exec. committee
born 1889
Law professor and trustee at Columbia University 1914-1917. Director NY Federal Reserve Bank. President of the First National Bank of New York. President of the Bank for International Settlements. Director of General Electric, U.S. Steel, and Mutual Life Insurance of New York. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1936-1945

Fréchette, Louise
Guest speaker
Received a Bachelor of Arts degree from College Basile Moreau. She earned a degree in history from the University of Montreal in 1970 and a post-graduate diploma in economic studies at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium in 1978. Ms. Fréchette began her career in 1971 in Canada's Department of External Affairs. She was part of her country's delegation to the General Assembly in 1972, and then served as Second Secretary at the Canadian Embassy in Athens until 1975. From 1975 to 1977, Ms. Fréchette worked in the European Affairs Division in Canada's Department of External Affairs. Returning to Europe, she served as First Secretary at the Canadian Mission to the United Nations in Geneva from 1978 to 1982. During that period, she participated in a session of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Madrid from November 1980 to July 1981. After serving as Deputy Director of the Trade Policy Division in the Department of External Affairs from 1982 to 1983, Ms. Fréchette became Director of the European Summit Division from 1983 to 1985. She received her first ambassadorship in 1985, serving as Canada's ambassador to Argentina with concurrent accreditation to Uruguay and Paraguay. Ms. Fréchette was named Assistant Deputy Minister for Latin America and the Caribbean in the Department of External Affairs and international trade in October 1988. In that capacity, she directed a review of Canada's relations with the region, which led to Canada's entry into the Organization of American States (OAS). In January 1991 she became Assistant Deputy Minister for Economic Policy and Trade Competitiveness. She served as Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations from 1992 to 1995. Deputy Minister of National Defence of Canada from 1995 to 1998. Became the first Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1998. Also chairs the steering committee on U.N. Reform and Management Policy. In 1998, she was appointed Officer of the Order of Canada. Spoke to the Canadian Institute of International Affairs in 1998. In 1999, when corruption in the oil-for-food program was rampant, Frechette intervened directly to stop United Nations auditors from forwarding their investigations to the U.N. Security Council. She and he assistant Iqbal Riza were hiding and shredding years of documents. In 2000 she attended a Bilderberg meeting. Gave a speech to the annual luncheon meeting of the Pilgrims of the United States in New York on April 25, 2001.

Funston, George Keith
A banker's son, he worked his way through Trinity College and Harvard Business School before becoming a salesman for American Radiator, and later, Sylvania. President Trinity College 1945-1951. President New York Stock Exchange 1951-1967. Chairman Olin Mathieson Chemical Co. 1967-1972. Director Illinois Central Industries, National Aviation Corporation, Putnam Trust Company, Chemical Bank, IBM, Metropolitan Life Insurance, Republic Steel, Winn Dixie Stores, Avco Corporation, Paul Revere Investors, and more.

Gallatin, Eugene
Great grandson of Albert Gallatin (1761-1849 - born in Geneva in an old noble family), who was a U.S. Treasury Secretary between 1801 and 1814. During the War of 1812, Albert made it possible for his associate, John Jacob Astor, to transport his furs across the battle lines. Albert also was a U.S. diplomat to England and France. Eugene Gallatin was a professional art collector.

Gardner, John W.
B.A. and M.A. in psychology from Stanford University, Ph.D. from the University of California, analyzed enemy propaganda broadcast to Latin America 1942-1943. Marine Corps and the OSS 1943-1945. Joined the Carnegie Corporation in 1946. President of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 1955-1965. Founder and chairman of Common Cause (lobby force of private citizens). Edited a volume of JFK's speeches and position papers. Presidential Medal of Freedom 1964. Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare under LBJ 1965-1968. Chairman of the National Urban Coalition (group of leaders who came together to tackle the problems of race and poverty that underlay the nationwide riots of 1968). Governor Nelson Rockefeller asked Gardner to fill Kennedy's vacant Senate seat (he declined) 1968. Trustee Stanford University 1968-1982. Founder and chairman of Independent Sector 1980-1983 (lobby force of private citizens). Director Institute of Medicine. Member of The Scientific Advisory Board of the Air Force. Member of the Advisory Board of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Director or advisor of Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Rockefeller University, Shell Oil Company, American Airlines, the Enterprise Foundation and National Center for Action. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Founding member of the national advisory board of the Haas Center. John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities was established at Stanford University in 2000.

Gates, Thomas Sovereign, Jr.
Son of an investment banker. Graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1928 and joined the investment banking firm of Drexel and Company in Philadelphia. Became became a partner in 1940. Rose to the rank of lieutenant commander in the Navy 1940-1945. Under-secretary of the Navy 1953-1957. Secretary of the Navy 1957-1959. Secretary of defense 1959-1961, who authorized U-2 reconnaissance flights. Director and president Morgan Guaranty Trust Company 1961-1965. CEO and chairman of Morgan Guaranty Trust Company in 1965. Nixon appointed him chairman of the Advisory Commission on an All-Volunteer Force, which presented its influential report in November 1969. Ambassador to China 1976-1977. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Member Pilgrims Society. Member Bohemian Grove.

Gerard , James W.
Lawyer, New York state Supreme Court justice 1908-1913 (Hearst's newspapers opposed his appointment), ambassador to Germany 1913-1917 and expelled when the submarine war against the U.S. began, treasurer of the Democratic National Committee 1914-1932, again New York state Supreme Court justice 1917-1921, delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York in 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1944 and 1948.

Giffard, Lord Hardinge Stanley
A leading barrister, politician and government minister, serving as Solicitor General and Lord Chancellor (1886-1892 and 1895-1905) of Great Britain. His lasting legacy was the compilation of a the complete digest of "Laws of England" (1905-1916), a major reference work published in many volumes and often called simply "Halsbury's". "Halsbury's Laws" was followed by a second multiple-volume reference work in 1929, "Halsbury's Statutes", and later by "Halsbury's Statutory Instruments". During the crisis over the Parliament Act of 1911, Halsbury was one of the principal leaders of the rebel faction of Tory peers that resolved on all out opposition to the government's bill. Giffard was also President of the Royal Society of Literature, Grand Warden of English Freemasons, and High Steward of the University of Oxford.

Gifford, Augustine Sands
Sources: August 18, 1982, The Boston Globe, obituary
Graduated from Smith College in 1912. Member of the Most Honorable Order of St. John, the Pilgrims Society of America, and a Colonial Dame of America. Husband of Pilgrims Society member Walter S. Gifford.

Gifford, Walter S.
Undergraduate from Harvard. President of American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) from 1925 to 1949. Videoconferencing was first introduced in 1926 when Walter S. Gifford used Video Teleconferencing to speak with the Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1950-1953.

Gilman, Daniel Coit
Incorporated Skull & Bones into the Russell Trust, together with William Huntington Russell. American educator who worked for a long time at Yale. Established and became the first president of Johns Hopkins University in 1875-1876. Co-founded the Carnegie Institution of Washington with Andrew Carnegie in 1902 and became its first president until 1904.

Gilpatrick, Roswell L.
Deputy Secretary of Defense under Kennedy, special adviser to Kennedy and part of his "Special Group" (on Cuba), director CBS, trustee Rockefeller Brothers Fund, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Gordon, Albert Hamilton
Received his MBA at Harvard, one of the old banking titans, acquired the investment banking house of Kidder, Peabody & Co. in 1931 and chaired it until 1968, opened offices of this company in Hong Kong and Japan, director of Sloan Kettering Hospital, Paine Webber Inc., The Americas Society, and the New York Road Runners Club, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Gordon, Lord John Campbell
Descendant of one the most powerful Scottish families which gained prominence in the 12th century. The original Dukes of Aberdeen were likely of Anglo-Norman descent and have been involved for centuries with the kings and queens of Scotland and England. The 4th Earl of Aberdeen, a Privy Councilor and Knight of the Order of the Thistle, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1852 to 1855. Lord John Gordon, 7th Earl of Aberdeen, was educated at St Andrews and Oxford. High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland 1881-1885. Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1886. Became a member of the Privy Council in 1886. Purchased the Coldstream Ranch, located in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, in 1891. Governor-General of Canada 1893-1898. Received the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) in 1895. President of the Highland and Agricultural Society 1901-1902. Appeared on a 1903 membership list of the Pilgrims of Great Britain. Again Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland 1905-1915. Became a Knight of the Order of the Thistle in 1906. Received the Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) in 1911. Lord Rector of St Andrews University 1913-1916. Again a High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1915. Created 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair in 1916. Honorary chief of both the Six Nations and Blackfoot people.

Gould, Edwin
Jay Gould’s son (famous for being extremely cruel), chairman of the St. Louis & Southwestern Railroad which owned the Arkansas & Texas Railway, director Paragould & Southeastern Railway, director Bowling Green Trust Company, consolidated competition into the Diamond Match Company in 1899, member Jekyll Island Georgia Club, member of the Pilgrims of New York in 1903.

Gould, Samuel B.
M.A. degree from New York University 1936, during World War II he served as an officer in the Navy, president of Antioch College for five years, president Boston University for six years, first chancellor of the Santa Barbara State College 1959-1962, director of National Commercial Bank & Trust, American Council on Education, chairman of the Institute of Man and Science, chairman Research Foundation of the State University of New York, trustee John D. Rockefeller III Fund, Salk Institute Educational Records Bureau Kettering Foundation, and other positions.

Grace, J. Peter
Born in 1913. Bachelor of Arts from Yale University in 1936. President and CEO of the chemical giant W.R. Grace & Co. 1945-1992 (big in South-America). Said to have been involved in Operation Paperclip and relevant projects after 1945. Member Council on Foreign Relations since 1950s. Chairman of the Order of the Knights of Malta (SMOM) in the United States. Director Citibank. President Catholic Youth Organization for the Archdiocese of New York. Chairman National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine. Member Willard Garvey's International conference on privatizing education. Chairman of the American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD), set up in 1962 to control Latin America's labor unions. Special forces commanders colonel Lansdale and general Richard G. Stilwell wrote the blueprints for the AIFLD, while David Rockefeller was one of the trustees. Trustee American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (Pilgrim Heinz II also). Involved with the CIA-sponsored Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. Chairman President’s Private Sector Survey on Cost Control (under Reagan). Chairman Advisory Committee of AmeriCares 1982-1995, which also counted the involvement of Zbigniew Brzezinski (Le Cercle), General Stilwell (Le Cercle), the Bush family, and received a lot of support from the Knights of Malta. Director Friends of the Democratic Center in Central America (involved the Iran-Contra affair). Member Council for National Policy (CNP), Pilgrim Society, Newcomen Society, and 1001 Club. Died in 1995.

Graham, William J.
News message about his death: William J. Graham, long a prominent actuary and outstanding insurance executive, died February 11, 1963, in Southside Hospital, Bay Shore, Long Island, at the age of 85. Mr. Graham's name became almost synonymous with the development of group insurance during the first half of the century. He was frequently re- ferred to as the, "Father of Group Insurance," for he played a key part in the 1911 discussions with the Montgomery Ward Company which led to the first of the modern forms of group insurance. From that point on, Mr. Graham crusaded for the use of group insurance in industry and commerce, and he was personally responsible for much of its spectacular growth and en- largement into the fields of annuities and health. Mr. Graham was born in Louisville, Kentucky, September 23, 1877. A graduate of Xavier College in Louisville, he also held an M.A. from St. Fran- cis Xavier College in New York. In 1938 he was awarded an honorary LL.D. from Hobart College. His mathematical aptitude early led him into the actuarial field. He be- came an Associate of the Actuarial Society of America at 21, and four years later became a Fellow. Later, he became a Charter Member of the Casualty Actuarial Society and an Associate of the British Institute of Actuaries. Mr. Graham started his insurance career as an actuary with the Sun Life Insurance Company of America (Louisville) in 1898, and from 1902 to 1905 he served on the actuarial staff of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. In 1905 his career gained considerable momentum through the service he rendered as consulting actuary (jointly with S. Herbert Wolfe) to the investi- gation of the life insurance companies of New York conducted by a group of state insurance departments. Almost simultaneously, he was invited to help reorganize the Northwestern National Life Insurance Company, which he served'as a vice-president, actuary, and director from 1905 to 1911. Mr. Graham joined the Equitable as western superintendent of agencies in 1911. When the Equitable established a Group Insurance Department the following year, he was made its superintendent. He thereafter rapidly rose, becoming vice president in 1929. He was elected a member of the Equitable's Board of Directors in 1937 and given charge of all agency activities, both group and ordinary. After more than 37 years of service with the Equitable, he retired on June 30, 1948, continuing, however, to serve on Equitablc's Board until December 31, 1958. Among Mr. Graham's innumerable writings was an insurance bestseller entitled The Romance of Life Insurance. Appearing first as a series of arti- cles in the 1908 issues of The World Today, it told a constructive story of life insurance which was much needed in those post-investigation days. Mr. Graham's broad human sympathies caused his interests to spread far beyond his employment and even beyond the insurance field. He headed the Insurance Institute of America and served as vice-president of the New York Chamber of Commerce; president of the American Management Association (which he helped to found); director of the American Arbitration Associa- tion; chairman of the Group Association; member of the Insurance Commit- tee of the United States Chamber of Commerce; governor of the National Industrial Conference Board; and a member of the New York Southern So- ciety. His New York club memberships included the Links, Nassau County, and the Pilgrims. He was also a member of the Pendennis Club in Louis- ville; the Royal Societies in London, England; and the Kentuckians. An imaginative, courageous, and dedicated master builder, Mr. Graham has left an indelible imprint not only on the insurance world, but on the social and economic life of our country. A hard taskmaster, he commanded and en- joyed great admiration, respect, and loyalty on all sides. His engaging, attrac- tive personality, and his endless drive and enthusiasm won him high praise not only as an expert technician but as one of the best all round salesmen in the insurance world. Mr. Graham is survived by a daughter, Mrs. William S. Adams, Jr., and four grandchildren.

Greenwood, Lord Hamar
1st Viscount Greenwood. Canadian-born Liberal member of parliament 1906-1922. Secretary of the Overseas Trade Department 1919-1920. Member Privy Council since 1920. Chief Secretary for Ireland 1920-1922. Conservative Member of parliament 1924-1929. Treasurer Conservative Party. Baron since 1929. Viscount since 1937. Director of one of England's greatest steel firms - Dorman, Long, and Company. President British Iron and Steel Federation 1938-1939.

Grenfell, Lord William Henry
Lord Desborough. Athlete, sportsman, and public servant. He filled almost all the offices in local government and local justice which were open to him in Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, and it has been calculated that at one time he was actually serving on no fewer than 115 committees, where his services were recognized as of real value. During the war of 1914-18 he was president of the Central Association of Volunteer Training Corps which passed more than a million men into the regular army and was eventually taken over by the War Office. In 1915 he represented the minister of munitions in France. Appointed chairman of the British Olympic Association in 1905. Chairman of the London Pilgrims 1919-1929. In 1921, he declined for family reasons, to become Governor-General of Canada.

Grenfell, Sir William (Max-Muller)
A British diplomat. This person was a member from the Grenfell family of Grenfell & Company, a British merchant bank, that merged with Morgan to become Morgan, Grenfell & Company. These days it still exists as Morgan Grenfell Asset Management, which is owned by Deutsche Bank. Pilgrim Lord Desborough was also a Grenfell.

Grey, Lord Edward
1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon. Educated at Winchester College and at Balliol College, Oxford. Elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal in 1885, having previously succeeded to his grandfather's baronetcy in 1882. He served under Lord Rosebery as Parliamentary Undersecretary for the Foreign Office in Gladstone's last government, from 1892 to 1895. During the Boer War (1899-1902), when the Liberals split between radical Pro-Boers and Liberal Imperialists, Grey stood decidedly on the side of the Imperialists like Rosebery and Herbert Henry Asquith. Foreign Secretary 1905-1916. In 1914, Grey played a key role in the crisis leading to the outbreak of World War I. His attempts to mediate the dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia by a "Stop in Belgrade" came to nothing due to the tepid German response, and when Germany declared war on France (3 August) and invaded Belgium (4 August), Grey was able to muster enough support to bring Britain into the war on August 4, 1914, despite initial radical wariness. In the early years of the war, Grey negotiated several important secret treaties, bringing Italy into the war (1915) and promising Russia the Turkish Straits. He maintained his position as Foreign Secretary when the Conservatives came into the government to form a coalition in May 1915, but when the Asquith government fell due to machinations between Lloyd George and the Tories, Grey went into opposition. Liberal Leader in the House of Lords in 1923-1924. Presided over a 1930 Pilgrims dinner attended by the international delegates of the London Naval Conference. He is probably best remembered for a remark he supposedly made to a friend one evening just before the outbreak of the First World War, as he watched the lights being lit on the street below his office: "The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime."

Grosvenor, Gerald Cavendish
6th Duke of Westminster. His wife can be traced directly to the Russian Peter the Great. Personal fortune is estimated at 5 billion pounds. Chairman Grosvenor Group. Owns over 300 acres of the best property in downtown London, plus large land holdings in Canada, Australia, Hawaii and elsewhere. Possibly a partner of the Royal Bank of Scotland through the National Westminster Bank. Joined the Territorial Army in 1970 as a Private. After long service he became Honorary Colonel-in-Chief of several regiments, including The Royal Mercian and Lancastrian Yeomanry, and Colonel Commandant Yeomanry. In November 2003, he was honoured by the catholic Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Royal Order of Francis I. Knight of the Order of the Garter. Knight of the Order of the British Empire. In 2004, he was appointed to the new post of Assistant Chief of Defence Staff (Reserves and Cadets) with promotion to the rank of Major-General. He is the first reservist holding such rank since the 1930s. In 2005, he became chancellor of the University of Chester.

Guthrie, Lord
General Lord Guthrie of Craigiebank. Educated at Harrow School and went to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1957. Commissioned into the Welsh Guards in 1959. Served with his Regiment as a young officer in the United Kingdom, Libya, Germany and Aden. Joined the SAS in 1966 and served in the Middle East, Malaysia and East Africa. Returned to the Welsh Guards in 1970 and for two years commanded an armoured infantry company in Germany. After a year as a student at the Staff College, he served in the Ministry of Defence as the Assistant to the Head of the Army, the Chief of the General Staff. Brigade Major of the Household Division 1975-1977. Commanded the Welsh Guards in Berlin and Northern Ireland 1977-1980. Appointed as a Colonel to the branch overseeing operations worldwide and during his time there became briefly the Commander British Forces New Hebrides (Vanuatu). In this function he recaptured the island of Espirito Santo, which had been taken over by insurgents. Awarded the Order of the British Empire in 1980. Appointed Commander of the 4th Armoured Brigade in Munster, West Germany, in 1981. Chief of Staff, Headquarters 1st British Corps in Bielefeld, early 1980s. Became the General Officer Commanding the 2nd Infantry Division and North East District in 1985. In 1986, he became Colonel Commandant of the Intelligence Corps. Knighted in 1990. Appointed Aide-de-Camp General to the Queen in 1993. Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 1994. After a further tour in the Ministry of Defence he became in succession the Commander of the 1st British Corps, the Northern Army Group, the British Army of the Rhine before becoming the Chief of the General Staff and finally the Chief of the Defence Staff (1997-2001). CFR/MORI report 2001: "In his valedictory speech to the Pilgrims Society in London in May of this year, the outgoing Chief of the British Defence Staff, Field Marshall Lord Guthrie, stated that the USA was the most important ally Britain had ever had, and that NATO was its most important alliance." Became a Colonel of the Life Guards and Gold Stick to the Queen in 1999. Colonel Commandant of the SAS in 2000. Became Lord Guthrie of Craigiebank in June 2001. Special adviser to Aon Special Risks, the market leading Counter-Terrorism, Political Risks, Kidnap and Ransom insurance broker and risk consultant. Non-executive director of Advanced Interactive Systems Inc. and Colt Defense LLC. Joined N.M. Rothschild & Sons as a non-executive director at the latest in 2002. Annual visitor of the Trilateral Commission since 2002. Member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Member of the steering committee of the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS). Member of the European Council of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. In December 2002, Blair sent Lord Guthrie and Jack Straw to Turkey as an unofficial military envoy to shore up support for an invasion of Iraq and to discuss plans to remove Saddam Hussein from power. In November 2003, he was honoured by the catholic Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Royal Order of Francis I. Became a non-executive special advisor of Aon Special Risks in 2004, a leading Counter-Terrorism, Political Risks and Kidnap and Ransom insurance broker and risk consultant. Freeman of the City of London. Knight of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Patron of the Order of Malta's Care Trust. Patron of the (Catholic) Cardinal Hume Centre. Vice-president of the Trinity Institute for Christianity and Culture. Commander of the Legion of Merit USA. Member of the House of Lords. In May 2004, Guthrie said at a conference on terrorism that terrorists might kill millions in the future due to biological or even nuclear weapons. He also said that he did not think that Iraq had nuclear weapons, but that this was an understandable mistake of the Bush Administration. In that same year he stated that Syria was one of the largest supporters of terrorism and has been exploiting Lebanon for a long time. Attended a discussion of the Windsor Leadership Trust in 2005. October 7, 2001, The Observer: "Lord Guthrie, the suave former British Chief of Defence Staff, has been a close friend of [Pakistani president] Musharraf for more than 20 years." Visited Oman as a paid advisor between 9 to 11 January 2004 and 10-12 January 2005. Made two 1-day visits to Libya, 4 April, 2004 and 27 June 2004, which was paid for by Government of Libya. Patron of the The Second World War Experience Centre, together with the 7th Marquess of Salisbury (Robert Gascoyne-Cecil), who is a member of Le Cecle. Sits on the board of the Ben Gurion University in Israel. Ben-Gurion was the initial premier of Israel and a close friend to the Rothschilds. Sits on the board of the Moscow School of Political Studies, which receives grants from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Council Member of the Institute of International and Strategic Studies and a member of the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. Patron of the UK Defence Forum. Vice patron of the Atlantic Council Partnership for Peace. Knight Commander of Justice and member of the Council of the British and Irish Delegation of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St George (catholic). The wife of Guthrie and the Duchess of Norfolk are dames of this order.

Hacking, Lord David
Son of another Pilgrims Society member. Baron Douglas David Hacking. Served in Royal Navy Reserve 1954-1964; in active service in Royal Navy 1956-1958; retired in rank of Lieutenant RNR; Worked as a barrister-at-law in London 1964-1975; US Attorney and Counselor-at-Law 1975-1976; Solicitor of the Supreme Court 1977-1999; Barrister, arbitrator and mediator in Littleton Chambers since 1999. Appointed as Arbitrator/Mediator by the ICC, the AAA, the LCIA, Hungarian Court of Arbitration, GAFTA, The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and others. Acts as Arbitrator/Mediator in all commercial arbitrations/mediations with specialist knowledge of aviation, commodities, construction and pharmaceutical industries; Parliament: Independent Peer 1972 - 1992, Conservative Peer 1992 - 1998, Labour Peer 1998 - 1999; Member of the Joint Committee (of House of Commons and Lords) on Consolidation Bills: 1973-1975 and 1999; Member of the House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities: Sub Committee E (Law and Institutions) 1989-1995, 1996-1999 and Sub Committee F (Justice and Home Affairs) 1999; Participated in Committee in House of Lords in numerous Public Bills including the Arbitration Bill 1979, the Financial Services Bill 1986, the Latent Damage Bill 1986, the Courts and Legal Services Bill 1990, the Competition and Service [Utilities] Bill 1992, the Maastricht Bill 1993, the Civil Aviation [Amendment] Bill 1996, the Arbitration Bill 1996, the Access to Justice Bill 1999 and the Contracts [Rights of Third Parties] Bill 1999 and conducted through the House of Lords various Private Bills; Freeman of the City of London, President of the Civil Court Users Association, Member of the British American Parliamentary Group, Member of the Pilgrims, and Trustee of Carthusian Trust.

Haggard, Sir Godfrey Digby Napier
exec. committee
Order of the British Empire. British Consul-General at New York.

Halifax, Lord Edward Wood
Came from an important Anglo-Catholic political family. His grandfather served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Lord John Russell's (younger brother of the 7th Duke of Bedford) government, which lasted from 1846 to 1852. Also served as president of the Board of Control under Lord Aberdeen (father of an initial Pilgrims Society member), as First Lord of the Admiralty, and as Secretary of State for India. He married to the daughter of the elite 2nd Earl Grey, a Knight of the Garter and Privy Councilor.

His father spent much of his adult life as president of the English Churh Union and played a prominent role in the (failed) attempt to bring about dialog between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England on the subject of Anglican Orders.
Lord Halifax himself was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. Member of Parliament 1910-1925. Member of the Conservative Party. Saw some active service during WWI but remained mostly behind the lines, being moved to a desk job in 1917. President of the Board of Education 1922-1924. Minister of Agriculture 1924-1925. Viceroy of India 1926-1931, picked at the suggestion of George V. After he was appointed he ignored Mahatma Gandhi for nineteen months. Signed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931, after which the Civil Disobedience Movement was suspended. Knight of the Garter since 1931. Inherited the title Viscount Halifax in 1934. War secretary for 5 months in 1935. Lord Privy Seal and leader of the House of Lords 1935-1937. In 1936, Halifax visited Nazi Germany for the first time. Halifax's friend, Sir Henry (Chips) Channon, reported: "I had a long conversation with Lord Halifax about Germany and his recent visit. He described Hitler's appearance, his khaki shirt, black breeches and patent leather evening shoes. He told me he liked all the Nazi leaders, even Goebbels, and he was much impressed, interested and amused by the visit. He thinks the regime absolutely fantastic, perhaps even too fantastic to be taken seriously. But he is very glad that he went, and thinks good may come of it. I was rivetted by all he said, and reluctant to let him go." (Henry "Chips" Channon, member of the House of Lords and very anti-communist; diary entry, December 5, 1936) Lord President of the (Privy) Council 1937-1938. In November 1937, prime minister Neville Chamberlain sent Lord Halifax to meet Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels, and Hermann Goering in Germany. In his diary, Lord Halifax records how he told Hitler: "Although there was much in the Nazi system that profoundly offended British opinion, I was not blind to what he (Hitler) had done for Germany, and to the achievement from his point of view of keeping Communism out of his country." Whereas Lord Halifax supported Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy, the foreign secretary, Anthony Eden, was highly critical of this way of dealing with Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. On February 25, 1938, Eden resigned over this issue and Lord Halifax became the new foreign secretary. In March 1938, Hitler declared Austria a part of Germany. On September 29, 1938, Neville Chamberlain, Adolf Hitler, Edouard Daladier and Benito Mussolini signed the Munich Agreement which transferred to Germany the Sudetenland, a fortified frontier region that contained a large German-speaking population. Winston Churchill and Anthony Eden attacked the agreement. In March 1939, Hitler broke the Munich Agreement and the German Army seized the rest of Czechoslovakia. England and France vow to intervene if Poland is attacked. In September 1939, Germany and later the USSR invade Poland while England and France do nothing. On November 8, 1939, the first assassination attempt on Hitler fails. In April 1940, Germany invades Denmark and Norway. On May 10, 1940, Chamberlain is followed up by Churchill, the same day Germany's invasion of the Benelux begins. Churchill keeps Lord Halifax as foreign secretary. In May-June 1940, 338.000 British, Belgian, and French troops are evacuated from Dunkirk, which is only made possible by Hitler's continuous stallings of the German panzer attack. This will allow England to continue the war. Hitler's commanders opposed these orders. In December 1940, Lord Halifax was replaced as foreign secretary by his long-term opponent, Anthony Eden. British ambassador to the United States 1941-1946. In the US he came across Otto von Habsburg and bluntly asked him: "Are you pursuing your intrigues even here?" British delegate to the United Nations San Francisco Conference in March 1945, in which the Rockefellers played a major role. Attended the first session of the United Nations in 1945. Became Chancellor of Sheffield University and chairman of the BBC. Knight of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Hambro, Rupert N.
Hambros Bank, was a British bank based in London. It was established there in 1839 by the Danish merchant and banker Carl Joachim Hambro as C. J. Hambro & Son. The bank was a specialist in Anglo-Scandinavian business with expertise in trade finance and investment banking, and was the sole banker to the Scandinavian kingdoms for many years. After merging with the British Bank of Northern Commerce (owned by Enskilda Banken and a number of Scandinavian savings banks) in 1921 the name was changed to Hambros Bank, and the firm expanded.
During World War II, Sir Charles Hambro raised finance for the exile Norwegian government and was head of the SOE (the Special Operations Executive), running a network of agents in Europe, including Operation Gunnerside, the sabotage of the Rjukan heavy water factory in Norway (featured in the film "The Heroes of Telemark"). He had good connections to the Swedish Wallenberg family and its Stockholms Enskilda Bank, eventually marrying the widow of Marcus Wallenberg.
After World War II, Hambros became also known as the 'diamond bank' with its thriving activity in financing the diamond industry and its trade. Hambros was one of the top three banks in the Euromarket by the mid 1960s.
In the mid 1970's the Bank was badly hit by the shipping crises and repeatedly hindered by its relationship with the Norwegian magnate Hilmar Reksten (1001 Club).
In 1986, the Hambro Trust, the majority shareholder in the bank, was dissolved and the family went their separate ways. Sir Charles' son, Charles Hambro (with his children Clare, Charles and Alex) stayed with the bank and Jocelyn Hambro (with his children Rupert, Richard and James) set up JO Hambro and Sons. This resulted in substantially less Hambro family influence in the banking group and promotion of Chips Keswick (Anglo-American; De Beers; Bank of England) to chairman of the Bank and Charles Perrin (of Reksten fame) to vice chairman and later CEO. Jocelyn Hambro and his sons were very successful in their new businesses, more than making up for the "loss" of the bank. Today the Bank survives only as a unit of the French group Société Générale, under the name SG Hambros.
Rupert was educated at Eton College and Aix en Provence University. Hambro began his distinguished business career in 1962 with Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co in Manchester and London. He then joined Hambros Bank in 1964, trained in Denmark (1964), Canada (1966) and the USA (1968), became a Director in 1969, Deputy Chairman in 1980 and Chairman in 1983. He left in 1986 to form JO Hambro with his father and two brothers. JO Hambro engages in private client investment management through JO Hambro Investment Management and investment management through JO Hambro Capital Management Ltd. Current directorships include JO Hambro Ltd (Chairman); Rupert Hambro & Partners Ltd (Chairman); Mayflower Corporation Plc (Chairman); Pioneer Holdings Plc; Telegraph Group Ltd (director); Wiltons (St James’) Ltd (Chairman); Longshot Ltd (Chairman); Chatsworth House Trust Ltd, and Woburn Golf & Country Club Ltd (Chairman). Other involvements include the International Advisory Board of Montana AG, Vienna; member of United States Information Agency, International Council, Washington; Treasurer, National Art Collections Fund; Chairman of Govenors of Museum of London; Chairman of Trustees, The Silver Trust (co-founded in 1987); Chairman, Society of Merchants Trading to the Continent; Chairman of the Trustees, The Square Mile Charitable Trust; Chairman of the Trustees, The Boys’ Club Trust; Hon. Fellow of the University of Bath; Fellow of the RSA; Hon. President, The Anglo-Danish Society, and Vice-Patron of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. In addition, Rupert Hambro is a Member of the Court of the Company of Goldsmiths; a Member of the Company of Fishmongers, the Corporation of London, and The Pilgrims Society of Great Britain.

Harbord, James G.
Born in Illinois, he grew up near Bushong in Lyon County, and graduated from Kansas State Agricultural College in 1886. After a short teaching career he enlisted in the army as a private and in 1891 he received a commission. His first overseas experience came as a member of the occupation army in Cuba after the Spanish American War. That was followed by 12 years service in the Philippines. He was on the Mexican border with General John J. Pershing in 1916 and when the United States entered the European conflict he went to France as Pershing's chief of staff, which won him a promotion to brigadier general. When the American marine commander in France became ill, Harbord replaced him and directed the marine action at Chateau Thierry and Belleau Wood, operations which smashed the German offensive directed at Paris in June 1918. In August 1918 the necessity for greater efficiency in troop and supply movement became apparent and Harbord was recalled from the front and put in charge of supply. This was described as the largest business undertaking that was ever conducted by one man in all history. His success won him Allied praise and the Distinguished Service Medal. At the end of the war he was commissioned a major general in the regular army and commanded at Camp Travis, Texas. When Pershing was appointed chief of staff, Harbord became his deputy. In 1922 General Harbord retired from the army and assumed the presidency of the Radio Corporation of America. He served as president of the Radio Corporation America for seven years and then as chairman of the board until 1947, the year of his death. Member of the Newcomen Society and decorated a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.

Harbord, John O.
Likely a family member of James G. Harbord, chairman Radio Corporation of America. Attended a Pilgrim meeting in 1939.

Harcourt, Viscount William Edward
Supposedly a descendants of William the Conqueror. Executive director of the IMF and the World Bank 1954-1957. Chair Morgan Grenfell & Co. in the 1960s and 1970s.

Harkness, Edward Stephen
Yale. Married Mary Stillman (Pilgrim family) in 1904. Family fortune was estimated at $800 million in 1924. One of the largest stockholders in Standard Oil. Large amount of stocks in many of the largest companies in the world as Michigan Central Railroad, New York Central Railroad, West Shore Railroad, C.C.C. & St. Louis Railroad, P. & L.E. Railroad and Southern Pacific Railroad. First president of the Commonwealth Fund (Harkness Fellowship). Founded the Pilgrim Trust in 1930, which helped build Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. Edward was a philanthropist who wasn't on the board of many companies and avoided to much publicity.

Harriman, Edward Henry
Railroad executive and financier. Director Newsweek. Controlled at various times the Illinois Central. Chairman Union Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Railroad. Lost a fight with James Hill to gain control of the Northern Pacific Railroad in a struggle that contributed to the stock market panic of 1901. James Hill, Edward Harriman and J. P. Morgan combined forces in 1906 to create a monopoly, the Northern Securities Company, but the Supreme Court ruled in favor of a government order to break up the firm. Edward was a director of Union Banking Corporation, which was a Nazi holding company. UBC did business with the Nazis up to 1943, when it was seized by the U.S. government under the trading with the enemy act.

Harriman, William Averell
Yale Skull & Bones 1913. Scion of the Harriman railroad family. Director Guarantee Trust Company (merged with J.P. Morgan). Formed the Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation in 1917 (became the largest merchant fleet). Together with his brother he formed W.A. Harriman & Company in 1922. Became acquainted with Fritz Thyssen during his trip to Germany in 1922. By 1924, Harriman's Union Banking Corporation was born, which has been described as an interlocking trust with the German Steel Trust of Thyssen and Dillon . W.A. Harriman traded with the Soviets during the 1925-1929 period. In 1931, W.A. Harriman & Co. merged with Brown Bros. & Co. to create the highly successful Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. Chairman New York State Committee of Employment 1933. Administrative Officer of Roosevelt's NRA 1934. Union Banking Corporation. Secretary of Commerce. US Ambassador to Russia during World War II. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1955. Head Mutual Security Administration 1951-1953. During this time the Psychological Strategy Board was created, initially headed by Gordon Gray. Governor of New York 1954-1958. Undersecretary of state for Far Eastern Affairs 1961-1964. Actively sought the removal of Republic of Vietnam President Ngo Dinh Diem and helped draft the telegram to U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge that implied U.S. support for a coup against him. Named as a Soviet spy by Anatoli Golitsin in 1962. In charge of African affairs at the Department of State 1964-1965. Ambassador-at-large for Southeast Asian affairs in 1965. U.S. representative at the Paris Peace Talks (about Vietnam) 1968. Confidential adviser to Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon and Carter. Organized the H. Smith Richardson Foundation, which participated in MK-ULTRA.

Harrison, George Leslie
exec. committee
Lawyer and financial expert, assistant general counsel and counsel Federal Reserve Bank of Washington D.C.1914-1920, counsel and deputy governor Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1920-1928, governor and president Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1928-1941, special consultant to the Secretary of War, president and chairman New York Life Insurance 1941-1953, chairman Interim Policy Committee on Atomic Energy, active on behalf of the American National Red Cross, trustee Columbia University.

Hartford, Huntington III
Owner of The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (founded by his grandfather), owner Oil Shale Corporation, owner Paradise Island in Nassau, the Bahamas, director Institute for British American Cultural Exchange in 1961, director New York World Fair 1964-1965, member of the United States Committee for the United Nations and the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, established the Huntington Hartford Gallery of Modern Art.

Harvey, George
After a career in journalism and insurance, he became involved in the construction and administration of electric railroads, a venture that brought him a fortune. In 1899 he bought the North American Review, and, with the backing of J. P. Morgan, he assumed control (1901) of Harper's Weekly. Harvey retired (1913) from the editorship of Harper's Weekly but later (1918) founded Harvey's Weekly as a medium for virulent attacks on Woodrow Wilson (his former friend and protégé) and the peace negotiations. After the election of Warren G. Harding, Harvey was appointed ambassador to Great Britain (1921-1923).

Hauge, Gabriel
Harvard, senior statistician Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1939, Princeton University economics professor 1940-1942, Navy reserve 1942-1946, chief Division of Research and Statistics New York State Banking 1947-1950, assistant chairman McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 1950-1952, assistant to president Eisenhower for Economic Affairs 1953-1958 (opposed Senator Joseph McCarthy's anti-Communist crusade and favored liberalized foreign trade policies), director Trust company 1959, treasurer Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1981, Bilderberg Steering Committee, chairman Manufacturers Hanover Bank 1971-1979 (joined in 1958 - 4th largest bank of the US at that time).

Hay, Andrew "Anthony" MacKenzie
Married Pilgrim daughter Sharman Douglas from 1968 to 1977, who, according to ITV (competitor of the BBC), had a 2-year lesbian affair with Queen Elizabeth II's younger sister, Princess Margaret Windsor. Andrew Hay is only described as a "food importer".

Hayes, Alfred
died 1989
Harvard, Yale, Oxford, Rhodes Scholar, analyst in the investment department of the City Bank Farmers Trust Company 1933-1940, bond department of the National City Bank 1940-1942, assistant secretary in the investment department New York Trust Co. 1942-1944, served as a naval lieutenant in financial planning for military government, and in the office of the Foreign Liquidation Commissioner in Washington and Rome 1944-1946, vice-president New York Trust in 1946, New York Trust Co. foreign division board 1947-1956, trustee Lignan University in Canton, China 1947-1954 (Mao’s Communist takeover was in 1949), president Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1956-1975, chairman Morgan Stanley International 1975-1981, director National Distillers & Chemical, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Healy, Harold Harris, Jr.
Son-in-law of Eli Whitney Debevoise (Pilgrim), Yale 1943, Phi Beta Kappa & Order of the Coif, U.S. Army Field Artillery landing in France 1943-1946, partner in Debevoise, comment editor and executive editor of the Yale Law Journal, executive assistant U.S. Attorney General 1957-1959, Plimpton Lyons & Gates, U.S. counsel for N.M. Rothschild & Sons, advisory council Ditchley Foundation, member of the Council on Foreign Relations, executive council American Society for International Law 1977-1980, trustee, treasurer and chairman of Vassar College 1977-1986, long-time member of the American Bar Association, first president of the Internationale des Avocats, persuaded the American Bar Association to join the previous organisation, director and president Legal Aid Society, director Metropolitan Opera Association, director Academy of American Poets, French Legion of Honor 1984.

Heard, George Alexander
University of California and Columbia, appointed chairman of the Commission on Campaign Costs by JFK, Chancellor of Vanderbilt University 1963-1972, chairman Alfred P. Sloan Foundation's study of presidential elections in America in 1982, director Time Incorporated, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Heinz, Henry John "Jack" II
Yale Skull & Bones 1931. Chairman of the family's firm H.J. Heinz Company (very large international food manufacturer). Chairman Howard Heinz Endowment. Very close with Carnegie and Mellon interests. Trustee American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (together with Pilgrim and Knight of Malta head J. Peter Grace). Member Council on Foreign Relations. Went to the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954. He was an organizer of the Bilderberg meetings, which he regularly attended, National Review, March 27, 1987: "He was an organizer of the Bilderberg meetings, which he regularly attended." 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pg. 448-449: "In late 1959 we were guests of Stavros [1001 Club] and Eugenie Niarchos for a week's sail through the Aegean aboard their three-masted schooner, The Creole... I had met Stavros six years earlier when he came to Chase's headquarters for a business meeting... Even though Stavros and I had little in common, we developed a good personal relationship and became business partners in many real estate deals in the United States, including the purchase of Rockefeller Center.... Our friends Jack [H.J. Heinz II; Pilgrims Society and Bilderberg organizer] and Drue Heinz of Pittsburgh were also on that 1959 voyage, as were Hans (Heini) Heinrich and Fiona Thyssen-Bornemisza [1001 Club], whom we met for the first time. Heini was the grandson of the famous August Thyssen, the "Rockefeller of the Ruhr," founder of Germany's Vereinigte Stahlwerke... Our cruise brought out the fact that we were all interested in art... The following May [1960]... we all flew to Lugano to spend the weekend with the Thyssens. When we arrived at Heini's home, the Villa Favorita, we were awestruck... It was the most beautiful private [art] collection we have ever seen." He is the father of Teresa Heinz Kerry's (born in Mozambique, brought up in South Africa, Carnegie trustee, global environmentalist sponsor, and considers herself a "world citizen") first husband, John Heinz III (who died in a plane crash). Teresa remarried with 1966 Skull & Bones member John F. Kerry, who became the main presidential opponent in 2004.

Hepburn, Alonzo
Chairman of the New York State Assembly. First chairman of the Economic Club of New York. In 1879 he organized a committee to investigate malpractices and the plausible existence of a monopoly in the oil industry. During the hearings, a witness testified that "nine-tenth of the refiners in the country were in "harmony" with Standard Oil." The committee's report focused mainly on the railroad companies and their illegal favoritism to certain companies in terms of transportation of oil, but it also noted that Standard Oil was a "mysterious organization." Indeed, Rockefeller had managed to become one of the wealthiest man in America without attracting the attention of the public, unlike other industrialists such as Jay Gould who were despised by the American people.

Herbert, Sir Michael
British Ambassador to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century. On January 24, 1903 U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Michael H. Herbert created a joint commission to establish the Alaskan border. On October 20, 1903, the joint commission (6 members, 3 from each side) ruled in favor of the United States in a boundary dispute between the District of Alaska and Canada. Sir Michael Herbert was a son of Baron Sidney Herbert, British War Minister from 1845-1846 and 1852-1855.

Heuvel, Stanley van den
Sources: May 26, 2006, Darien News-Review, obituary (also May 19)

Born in 1917. Graduated from Riverdale County School in 1936, Princeton University in 1940 and Harvard Law School in 1947. Served as an officer in the Field Artillery of the 37th Division in the South Pacific in World War II. After practicing law for several years, Mr. van den Heuvel joined Hanover Bank in 1955. Retired from Manufacturers Hanover Bank in 1982 as senior vice president and corporate secretary. Served as the director of the LTC Trust Co. of New York, Goodwill Industries of Greater New York, the Newcomen Society of the U.S., Princeton in Asia, and the Darien chapter of the American Red Cross. Member of The Pilgrims, the Kiwanis Club, the Senior Men's Association of Darien and Noroton Presbyterian Church.

Hewart, Viscount Gordon
Oxford. Called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1902. Member of parliament for Leicester 1913-1922. Solicitor General 1919-1922. Lord Chief Justice of England 1922-1940.

Hewitt, William Alexander
Lieutenant commander on the battleship California in WWII on which his Cabin Mate was co-Pilgrim Gabriel Hauge. Married into the Deere fortune of Deere & Company (heavy agricultural machinery). Chairman Deere & Company. Director of Continental Illinois National Bank, Continental Oil Company, and A.T.&T. Chase Manhattan Bank 1965-1982. Director of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Trade & Economic Council. Advisor. Director of the National Council for U.S.-China Trade (vice chairman 1973-1975; chairman 1975-1978). Governor American National Red Cross 1967-1970. Director United Nations Association 1970-1973. Trustee Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 1971-1975. Life trustee Caltech. Member Trilateral Commission 1973-1981, Americas Society, Asia Society, Council on Foreign Relations, Committee for Economic Development, National Corporation for Housing Partnerships, Atlantic Institute for International Affairs, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, International Executive Service Corps, California Institute of Technology, and the Stanford Research Council. Honorary member of the Smithsonian National Association. Board. Openly loyal to the King of England.

Hill, John Warren
Member of the finance committee for New York county of the American Legion 1927-1928, member of the Joint Legislative Committee on Interstate Cooperation 1946, director of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene.

Hill, James J.
He and others purchased the nearly bankrupt St. Paul and Pacific Railroad in 1878, which he and his partners made into one of the most successful railroad companies of the U.S. In a later stage of his life, Hill was also involved with coal and iron ore mining, Great Lakes and Pacific Ocean shipping, banking and finance, agriculture and milling. He owned many million acres of land and immense iron ore deposits in Minnesota. He amassed a personal fortune of about 63 million dollars. He was one of the initial directors of American International Corporation, formed in November 1915. Temporary offices were opened in the National City Bank Building.

Hoffman, Paul Gray
President Studebaker Corporation 1935-1948, founder and chairman Committee for Economic Development 1942-1948, president Ford Foundation 1950-1953, chairman Studebaker Corporation 1953-1956, delegate to the United Nations 1956-1957, managing director UN Special Fund (UN Development Program) 1959-1972, director Encyclopedia Britannica

Hogan, Frank J.
Georgetown University law degree 1902, founded Hogan & Hartson (D.C. area major law firm), became a nationally famous trial lawyer, among his clients were Theodore Roosevelt and Andrew Mellon, president of the American Bar Association in 1939, addressed the Pilgrims in 1939.

Hogg, Douglas McGarel
British lawyer and politician, Queen's Privy Council 1922, attorney general 1922-1928, Lord Chancellor in the UK conservative government 1928-1929, Secretary of State for War 1931-1935, U.K. Leader of the House of Lords 1931-1935.

Holbrooke, Richard C.
b. 1941
Born in 1941. BA from Brown University in 1962. Joined the Foreign Service in 1962. After studying Vietnamese, he was sent to Vietnam and, in the following six years served in a variety of posts related to Vietnam - first in the Mekong Delta as a provincial representative for the Agency for International Development (AID), and then as staff assistant to ambassadors Maxwell Taylor and Henry Cabot Lodge. In 1966 he was re-assigned to the White House, working on the Vietnam staff of President Johnson. In 1967-1969, he wrote one volume of the Pentagon Papers (which was first exposed by the New York Times in 1971), served as a special assistant to Under Secretaries of State Nicholas Katzenbach and Elliot Richardson (Pilgrims), and simultaneously served as a member of the American Delegation to the Paris Peace Talks on Vietnam, headed successively by Averell Harriman (Pilgrims) and Henry Cabot Lodge. Holbrooke recalls that he did not question the objectives of the U.S. intervention in Vietnam at the time but he did question the methods employed. These methods, he believed, culminated in a military quagmire and the eventual U.S. military defeat. In his interview with Frontline, he said, "The bombing [of North Vietnam] ... increasingly ... didn't make much sense. ... I came to the conclusion ... that either we shouldn't be doing it, or we should be doing it more effectively." Following these assignments Ambassador Holbrooke spent a year as a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University. In 1970 he was assigned as Peace Corps director in Morocco. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations since at least 1970. Managing Editor of the CFR's quarterly magazine Foreign Policy 1972-1976. Consultant to the President's Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy 1974-1975. Regular visitor of the Trilateral Commission since 1975. Contributing editor to Newsweek in the 1970s. Coordinated National Security Affairs for the Carter-Mondale presidential campaign in 1976. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs 1977-1981. During his tenure in the East Asia Bureau, among other events, the United States established full diplomatic relations with China, an effort clandestinely headed by Henry Kissnger and David Rockefeller. Became vice president of Public Strategies 1981, a Washington-based consulting firm founded by him and James A. Johnson. Consultant to Lehman Brothers since 1981. Managing director at Lehman Brothers. Regular visitor of Bilderberg in the 1990s. Director of the Council on Foreign Relations 1991-1993, and 1996. Member of the 1992 Carnegie Commission on America and a Changing World, chaired by Winston Lord. Architect of the Dayton accords. U.S. Ambassador to Germany 1993-1994. Co-founded the privately-funded American Acadamy in Berlin in 1994, together with Henry Kissinger, Richard von Weizsäcker, Fritz Stern, and Otto Count Lambsdorff. Still a trustee of the American Acadamy in Berlin. Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs 1994-1996. Became Chief U.S. Envoy to the former Yugoslavia in 1995. Negotiated the Dayton Peace Agreement of late 1995, which largely ended the hostilities between the Bosnia and Croatia. Chairman of Refugees International 1996-1999, and still a director in 2006. Honorary directors of Refugees International include George Soros and Frank Wisner. Former director International Rescue Committee, which has been headed by Tom Brokaw, Winston Lord, and John C. Whitehead. Special Presidential Envoy for Cyprus, and a Special Envoy on Bosnia and Kosovo 1996-1999. Negotiated the October 1998 agreement, and, after it was violated, delivered the final ultimatum to Belgrade on March 23rd, 1999, prior to the NATO bombing campaign. US permanent ambassador to the United Nations. Played an active role in persuading Congress to finally approve back payment to the United Nations - keeping the United States from losing its vote in the General Assembly - and he continues to further relations between the American public and politic and the United Nations. President and CEO of the Global Business Coalition on HIV/AIDS since 2001 (Bertrand Collomb is a vice chairman, who is huge on the European globalist scene). Director of Human Genome Sciences, Inc. since 2001, a biopharmaceutical corporation founded by William Haseltine in 1992, a Harvard University AIDS researcher. Received seven Nobel Peace Prize nominations. Chairman of the CFR's Terrorism Task Force since 2001. Advisor to the presidential campaign of John Kerry in 2004. Friend of general Wesley Clark, a Democrat and presidential candidate in 2004. Although a Democrat, Holbrooke is generally seen as more hawkish than most Democrats. Chairman of the executive committee of the Asia Society since 2002. February 23, 2006, Asia Society introduction by Richard Holbrooke: "Our two former chairmen, both dear friends of mine for many, many years, Roy Huffington and John Whitehead..." Three members of the Rockefeller family gave a speech at this gathering. Here he was preceded by Maurice Greenberg from 1995 to 2002, while John C. Whitehead is a honorary chairman. John D. Rockefeller IV is among trustees of the Asia Society. Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Present at the 2004 International Asian Art Fair (revenues went to the Asia Society), which was also attended by Lady Lynn and Sir Evelyn de Rothschild. Vice chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston, a New York based investment bank he joined in 1997. Vice Chairman of Perseus LLC, a leading private equity firm. The firm's website prominently shows a statue showing Perseus holding up Medusa's head, freshly cut of from her body. Director of Maurice Greenberg's AIG, the insurance firm which has a strategic partnership with Kissinger Associates and The Blackstone Group. Former director of Quebecor World. Member of the International Institute of Strategic Studies, the Citizens Committee for New York City, and the Economic Club of New York. Director of the the America-China Society, the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, the American Museum of Natural History, the National Endowment for Democracy, the Africa-America Institute, and the Citizens Committee for New York City. Honorary director of the [Thomas] Watson Institute for International Studies. John C. Whitehead is on the board of overseers of the Watson Institute. Very close friend of William H. Luers, chairman of the United Nations Association of the United States since 1998, where Luers followed up Pilgrims Society member John C. Whitehead. Married to Kati Marton, an author and journalist who was formerly married to anchorman Peter Jennings. Has two sons. One is a producer at NBC News; the other works in a refugee camp in Thailand.

Holt, Hamilton
Yale and Columbia University, disappointed with the traditional education of lecture and recitation, president Rollins College, assisted in the formation of The League of Nations, Holt was a founder of the Italy-America Society and the Netherlands-America Foundation (Carnegie was acquainted with the Royal Dutch house of Orange-Nassau, interlocked with his patrons, the British Crown).

Hornblower, Henry II
Owned Hornblower & Weeks, Hemphill-Noyes investment bankers, founded the Plimoth Plantation, trustee of another Pilgrim Society, founded in 1820, which is a genealogical and historical organization at Plymouth, Mass, member of the American Antiquarian Society.

Houghton, Alanson Bigelow, Jr.
His grandfather founded Corning Glass Works, was initially successful, but went bankrupt in 1868. His sons Amory and Charles revived the firm and turned it into a great success. Alanson, a son of Amory, was an undergraduate of Harvard. Vice-president of Corning Glass Works from 1903 to 1910 and president from 1910 to 1918. During this time, Houghton tripled the size of Corning Glass. It produced about 40% of the bulbs and tubing for incandescent electric lights and 75% of the railway signal glass used in the U.S. It was one of the largest glass producers in the industry. Member of Congress from 1919 to 1922. US Ambassador to Germany 1922-1925. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1925-1929. Involved in the Dawes Plan (1924), the Locarno Treaties (1925), and the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928). His son, Amory Houghton Sr., was Eisenhower's ambassador to France. And his son, Amory Jr., has been a Republican member of Congress since 1987.

Hoving, Walter
Chairman Hoving Corporation. Bought a controlling interest in Tiffany & Company (originated from New York) in 1955 and became its chairman.

Howard, Esme William
1st Baron Howard of Penrith. Grandson of Lord Henry Thomas Molyneux Howard, younger brother of the twelfth Duke of Norfolk. Howard was born at Greystoke Castle, Cumberland, and educated at Harrow. In 1885, he passed the Diplomatic Service examination, and was assistant private secretary to the Earl of Carnarvon as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland before being attached to the British Embassy in Rome. In 1888, he arrived in Berlin as the embassy's third secretary, and after retiring from the Diplomatic Service four years later, he was made assistant private secretary to the Earl of Kimberley, the Foreign Secretary at the time. Having fought in the Second Boer War with the Imperial Yeomanry, Howard became Consul General for Crete in 1903, and three years later was sent to Washington as a counsellor at the embassy there. In 1908, he was appointed in the same role to Vienna, and that same year became Consul General at Budapest. Three years later, Howard was made Envoy Extraordinary and Ambassador Plenipotentiary in Berne, and in 1913 he was transferred to Stockholm, where he spent the whole of the First World War. In 1916, having already been appointed CMG and CVO ten years earlier, he was knighted as KCMG, becoming KCB three years later. In 1919, Sir Esme Howard was attached to the British delegation during the Paris Peace Conference, also being made British Civil Delegate on the International Commission to Poland. That same year, he was sent to Madrid as ambassador there, and in 1924 returned to Washington in the same role. Appointed GCMG and GCB in 1923 and 1928 respectively, he was created, on his retirement in 1930, Baron Howard of Penrith, of Gowbarrow in the County of Cumberland. Around the time of his resignation he gave a speech to the Pilgrims Society.

Hughes, Billy
Australia’s Prime Minister Billy Hughes. Present at a 1918 Pilgrims dinner in 1918. In 1919, Hughes and former Prime Minister Joseph Cook travelled to London to attend the Versailles peace conference. He remained away for 16 months, and signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of Australia - the first time Australia had signed an international treaty. At Versailles Hughes demanded heavy reparations from Germany and frequently clashed with President Woodrow Wilson of the United States. He succeeded in securing Australian control of Germany's colonial possessions in New Guinea.

Hughes, Charles Evans
Brown University and Columbia University. Trustee Rockefeller’s University of Chicago. Uncovered gas rate fraud in NY in 1905 and was appointed to investigate the insurance industry. Governor of New York 1907-1910. Declined vice-presidential nomination by William Howard Taft in 1908. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 1910-1916. Defeated by Woodrow Wilson in 1916 presidential race. Favored the ratification of the treaty creating the League of Nations in 1920. Secretary of State under Warren G. Harding & Calvin Coolidge 1921–1925. Served as a judge of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the Permanent Court of International Justice in The Hague, The Netherlands in the second half of the twenties. At a London Pilgrim meeting in 1924, Hughes was photographed sitting next to the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Connaught. President of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1927-1929. Chief Justice of the United States 1930-1941. Automatically appointed chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution during his appointment as Chief Justice. Led the fight against Franklin Delano Roosevelt's attempt to pack the Supreme Court after they regarded the New Deal as unconstitutional.

Hyde, James Hazen
Harvard, vice president of Equitable Life Assurance Society 1899-1905, involved in an insurance scandal and fled to Versailles, France, co-founders Alliance Française, awarded the Grand Cross of the French Legion of Honor.

Inge, Lord Peter
Army Officer 1956-97; Commissioned Green Howards 1956; Served Hong Kong, Malaya, Germany, Libya and UK; ADC to GOC, 4 Division 1960-61; Adjutant, 1 Green Howards 1963-64; Student, Staff College 1966; Ministry of Defence 1967-69; Company Commander, 1 Green Howards 1969-70; Student, Joint Services Staff College 1971; BM, 11 Armoured Brigade 1972; Instructor, Staff College 1973-74; CO, 1 Green Howards 1974-76; Commandant, Junior Division, Staff College 1977-79; Commander, Task Force C/4 Armoured Brigade 1980-81; Chief of Staff, HQ 1 (BR) Corps 1982-83; Colonel, The Green Howards 1982-94; GOC, NE District and Commander 2nd Infantry Division 1984-86; Director General, Logistic Policy (Army), Ministry of Defence 1986-87; Commander, 1st (Br) Corps 1987-89; Colonel Commandant, Royal Military Police 1987-92; Commander, Northern Army Group and C-in-C, BAOR 1989-92; ADC General to HM The Queen 1991-94; Chief of the General Staff 1992-94; promoted to the rank of Field Marshal in 1994; Chief of the Defence Staff 1994-97; Constable, HM Tower of London 1996-2001; Raised to the peerage as Baron Inge, of Richmond in the County of North Yorkshire 1997; President of the British-German Officers' Association; Member of the Board and Council of St. George's House at Windsor Castle; Deputy Chairman of Historic Royal Palaces; Member of Council of Marlborough College; Member of the Council of the Interfaith Dialogue; Commissioner of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea; Member of the Council of King Edward VII's Hospital Sister Agnes; Freeman of the City of London; Member of the Order of the Bath; Member of the Order of the Garter; Member of the Privy Council since 2004; He was a member of the Butler Inquiry team, chaired by Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, that determined that the intelligence used to declare Iraq's possession of "Weapons of Mass Destruction" was flawed. When Inge was appointed to sit in judgment on whether our spies were wrong about Iraq or whether their messages were distorted, he was still a member of the Hakluyt Foundation, a supervisory board for Hakluyt, a firm which hires former MI6 agents to work for private companies like Shell and BP. Today, Lord Inge is also a consultant to BAE Systems, Vickers plc., Investcorp (a Middle Eastern bank), and OWR AG (a German firm making gas masks, protective suits, decontamination trailers and other specialist protection against nuclear, biological and chemical warfare). Since 2003, the year it was created, Lord Inge is the non-executive chairman of Aegis Defence Services, a London-based company which offers mercenaries and related services to governments at war. Aegis was awarded a $293 million contract by the Pentagon in May 2004 to act as the "coordination and management hub" for the fifty-plus private security companies in Iraq. They also contributed seventy-five teams of eight armed civilians each to assist and protect the Project Management Office of the United States and provided protection for the Oil-for-Food Program inquiry. The CEO of Aegis is Lt. Col. Tim Spicer, a former officer of the SAS and a former CEO of Sandline International. Sandline has been

Jackson, N. Baxter
Vanderbilt University graduate who became a trustee, chairman Chemical Bank in 1946, director American Chain & Cable Company, Home Life Insurance, French-American Banking Corporation, General Reinsurance Corporation, North Star Reinsurance, and Warner Lambert Pharmaceutical, member Newcomen Society.

Jenkins, Roy Harris
exec. committee
Baron, Labour minister in 1964, home secretary 1965-1967 and 1974-1976, chancellor of the Exchequer 1967-1970, president European Commission 1977-1981, co-founder Social Democratic Party, SDP member of parliament 1982-1987, chancellor Oxford University in 1982 and made a life peer, president of the Royal Society, minister of aviation, leader House of Lords. In 1997 he was appointed head of a commission, set up by the Labour government, to recommend, in 1998, a new voting system for elections to Parliament. Jenkins has contributed frequently to British newspapers and periodicals and is a distinguished writer whose biographical subjects have included Henry Asquith, Harry Truman, Clement Attlee, and Stanley Baldwin.

Jennings, Oliver Gould
died 1936
Born about 1863. Yale Skull & Bones 1887. Sat on the boards of Bethlehem Steel, United States Industrial Alcohol Company, McKesson & Robbins, Kingsport Press, Signature Company, National Fuel Gas Company, and Grocery Store Products.

Johnson, Joseph Esrey
Seems to have had a honorable grandfather, Johnson studied at Harvard University, where he earned his bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees. His first teaching position was as a professor of history at Bowdoin College in 1934 and 1935. From there he moved on to Williams College in Massachusetts in 1936, where he was an assistant professor of history until 1947, and a full professor from 1947-1950. During the years from 1943-1947, however, Johnson was on leave from Williams College, and served in a variety of positions with the State Department and United Nations. Initially Johnson was appointed chief of the international affairs division in the State Department. While in this post, he played a role in the creation of the United Nations, attending both the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in 1944 as well as the San Francisco Conference in 1945. Johnson later served as an adviser to the U.S. delegation at the first U.N. General Assembly at Lake Success, New York in 1946, and assisted the U.S. representative to the Security Council, which met in London. Johnson returned to Williams College in 1947, yet his time in academia proved to be short-lived. In 1950 he was appointed to be a trustee, and then president, of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he was able to apply his growing expertise in the field of brokering peaceful solutions to international disputes. Although he served as a consultant at numerous international conferences, and was an alternate U.S. delegate to the United Nations General Assembly in 1969, he is perhaps best remembered for his role on the U.N. Conciliation Commission for Palestine in 1961. As part of the commission Johnson was named a special envoy, and traveled throughout the Middle East, meeting with various governments in search of a means of providing Palestinian refugees with a homeland of their own. Johnson’s final report recommended that refugees who were forced out of their homes by the 1948 war be allowed to return to their former homes in Israel. However, neither side accepted Johnson’s proposals. Johnson was also a director of the Council on Foreign Relations between 1950 and 1974, Bilderberg visitor.

Kahn, Otto Hermann
Born in Mannheim, Germany. Emigrated to U.S. in 1893 and became a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co. in 1897. Jacob Schiff (later Pilgrim) and Paul Warburg (later Pilgrim), NY 1897-1934 and it's main stockholder from 1908 and on. Chairman and president Metropolitan Opera Company of New York 1911-1931. Founded the Chicago Opera and served on the board of various other musical companies. Director of both Equitable Trust Co. of New York and Los Angeles. Director Italy-American Society. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1934. Trustee Carnegie Institute of Technology and MIT. Chairman of the Finance and Currency Committee of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York. Vice-president English-Speaking Union. His attempt to become president of the English-Speaking Union was defeated by the timely exposure of his role in financing the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. Knight Order of Charles II, Order of the Crown (Italy), and Order of the Rising Sun. His house was a meeting place for Soviet agents as Nina Smorodin, Claire Sheridan, Louise Bryant and Margaret Harrison.

Kellogg, Frank B.
After five years on the farm, he entered a law office in Rochester, Minnesota, supporting himself as a handyman for a Rochester farmer and teaching himself law, history, Latin, and German with the aid of borrowed textbooks. Having passed the state bar examination in 1877, he became the city attorney for Rochester and two years later the attorney for Olmsted County. A cousin, Cushman Kellogg Davis, the leading lawyer of St. Paul and later a United States senator, recognizing Frank Kellogg's energy, tenacity, and skill, invited him, in 1887, to join his law firm. In the next twenty years Kellogg earned a substantial fortune. He became counsel for some of the railroads, the iron mining companies, and the steel manufacturing firms that developed the rich Mesabi iron range in Minnesota and, consequently, a friend of some of the great business figures of the day, among them, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and James J. Hill. Despite such associations, Kellogg achieved national fame as a 'trustbuster'. He won an antitrust victory against E. H. Harriman and the Union Pacific Railroad, and another in 1911 against John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company in one of the most dramatic legal battles of the pre-World War I era. In 1912 he was named president of the American Bar Association. Kellogg was a member of the National Committee of the Republican Party from 1904 to 1912 and a delegate to its national conventions in 1904, 1908, and 1912. In 1916 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, taking his seat on March 4, 1917, in time to vote for America's entry into World War I on April 6. He always supported Woodrow Wilson. Tried hard to obtain senatorial ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and of the Covenant of the League of Nations. A poor campaigner, Kellogg lost his try in 1922 for a second term in the Senate. In March, 1923, President Harding sent him on his first diplomatic mission as a delegate to the fifth Pan-American Conference, which was held in Chile. When he came back he was appointed ambassador to Great Britain. The most important diplomatic affair in which he figured in his fourteen months in England was the London Reparations Conference convened to accept the Dawes Committee report. In 1925 Kellogg succeeded Charles Evans Hughes as secretary of state in Coolidge's cabinet, holding the position until 1929. In pursuance of his faith in the efficacy of the legal arbitration of international disputes, Kellogg arranged for the signing of bilateral treaties with nineteen foreign nations. Of the eighty treaties of various kinds which he signed while in office - a total breaking the record set by William Jennings Bryan from 1913 to 1915 - none was so important to him as the Pact of Paris, commonly called the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928). Kellogg returned to St. Paul early in 1929 and during the months that followed traveled extensively in America and in Europe to receive many honors, among them the Nobel Peace Prize, the French Legion of Honor, and honorary degrees from many universities. In 1930 he filled Hughes's unexpired term on the Permanent Court of International Justice and was then elected to a full term of his own. Because of failing health, however, he was forced to resign from the Court in 1935.

Kelsey, John "Jack" F., Jr.
d. 2004
Sources: August 31, 2004, The New York Times, obituary
Served in the United States Army and flew 35 combat missions as a B-17 Bombardier. He received the Air Medal with five clusters and a Purple Heart. Held executive positions with Marsh & McLennan and W.R. Grace. Executive VicePresident for Bender & Company. former president of the Metropolitan Golf Association, the Montclair Golf Club, on the Board of Pine Valley Golf Club, the NJSGA and USSGA. In New York City, he was a founding Board member of the John Street Club, and active in the Union League Club, the Madison Square Garden Club and The Pilgrims. Died in 2004.

Kemmerer, Edwin Walter
Professor of Economics at Princeton University, president of the Economists National Committee on Monetary Policy in 1937, according to The Commercial & Financial Chronicle Kemmerer (1938) Kemmerer was one of 60 economics who signed a resolution at a summit against silver coinage, director of U.S. & Foreign Securities Corporation and U.S. & International Securities Corporation from 1947. He wrote more than a dozen books, the most well-known was "The ABC of the Federal Reserve System" (1918), which ran to twelve editions.

Kennedy, Joseph Patrick
Harvard graduate. He engaged in banking, shipbuilding, investment banking, and motion-picture distribution before he served as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission in 1934 and 1935, chairman U.S. Maritime Commission 1935-1937, U.S. ambassador to Great Britain 1937-1940, supported the overtures of the Chamberlain government to Hitler and was generally noninterventionist, informal adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, went back in (successful business after this) Knight of Malta, 2 of his 3 sons were publicly murdered. The last son is a member of the CFR.

Kerr of Kinlochard, Lord John
MA from Oxford University. Member of the UK Diplomatic Service from 1966 to 2002. Ambassador to the European Union from 1990 to 1995. Ambassador to the US from 1995 to 1997. From 1997 to 2002 he was Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Head of the Diplomatic Service, making him the first member of the Service to hold its three top jobs. In 2000 he became the most senior UK official to visit Tripoli (Libya) since 1984. From 2002 to 2003 he was Secretary-General of the European Convention, which prepared the EU Constitutional Treaty (rejected by the Dutch and French citizens in 2005). Ennobled in June 2004. Member of the Advisory Board of the Centre for European Reform. Director of Rio Tinto Plc and Rio Tinto Australia since 2003. Director of Shell Transport and Trading who was a key architect of the plan to merge the company with Royal Dutch Shell in 2005. Director of the Scottish American Investment Trust. Since 2004 he is chairman of the Court and Council of Imperial College, London. Here he followed up Lord Vincent of Coleshill, another Pilgrim. Trustee of the Rhodes Trust. Trustee, National Gallery. Honorary governor of the Glasgow Academy. Honorary fellow of the Pembroke College, Oxford. Honorary president of the Universities Association for Contemporary European Studies. Member of the House of Lords. Member of the Trilateral Commission at least since 2002. Visited Bilderberg in 2004 and 2005. Governor of the Ditchley Foundation anno 2005. Chaired the 2004 Ditchley discussion group 'The future direction of an enlarged Europe'. Knight of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Kerr, Lord Philip Henry
Aristocratic family who were staunch members of the Roman Catholic Church. His close friendship to Nancy Astor led to their both converting to the Church of Christ, Scientist together. The reaction of his family to this eventually led to his support of Anti-Catholicism. Served on various government commissions in South Africa and was a member of Viscount Alfred Milner's (Pilgrims Society) "kindergarten" 1905-1910. Co-founder and editor of a liberal scholarly journal called the "Round Table" 1910-1916. David Lloyd George's private secretary 1916-1921. Active at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Important member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Secretary of the Rhodes Trust since 1925. Inherited the title of 11th Marquess of Lothian in 1930. Represented the Liberal party in the National government as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster 1931-1932. British Ambassador to the United States. Chairman of the India franchise committee 1932. Advocated appeasement of Nazi Germany until 1939 when he came round to a vigorous advocacy of resistance to Adolf Hitler. Invited to a Pilgrim banquet held in his honor at Hotel Plaza, New York City, October 25, 1939. Became a Knight of the Thistle in 1940.

Keswick, Sir William Johnston "Tony"
Son of Henry Keswick, who was the son of William Keswick, the person that took control of Jardine Matheson in 1886 (1834-1912). Jardine Matheson has its origins in the 1830s, when founders William Jardine and James Matheson invested their substantial returns from opium trade in China. According to EIR, they are still involved in the drug business today. Hugh Matheson founded Rio Tinto Zinc (RTZ) in 1873, which the Rothschilds owned for 1/3 in 1905. Tony is the older brother of Sir John Henry Keswick.

Tony was head of Jardine Matheson's Shanghai office from 1935 to 1941. During this period, he was also chairman of the Shanghai Municipal Council. Became managing director of Matheson & Co. in London after WWII. Governor of the Hudson Bay Company 1952-1965 (chartered in 1670 by Charles II of England) in which Jardine Matheson, the Keswick's family company, had a controlling interest. Governor of the Bank of England in the late 1960s. Director British Petroleum and Sun Alliance. Vice-chairman of the Alliance Assurance. Tony Keswick was a member of the Pilgrims Society while Henry Keswick, chairman of Jardine Matheson, has been identified as a member of the 1001 Club.

The Keswick family of Jardine Matheson bought a 20% stake in Rothschilds Continuation Holdings in 2005. They are the only non-Rothschild shareholders.

Kinnaird, Lord
Arthur Fitzgerald Kinnaird. 11th Lord Kinnaird. Knight of the Thistle.

Kirk, Grayson Louis
Advised the State Department on international politics in the 1940s, helped create the United Nations, professor Columbia University 1940-1949, provost Columbia University 1949-1953, president Columbia University 1953-1968 (successor to Dwight D. Eisenhower), trustee of Columbia University after 1968, appointed Bryce Professor of the History of International Relations during his Columbia presidency, director Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1964, president Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1971, in 1968 he made a strong and widely reported appeal to the government to get out of Vietnam as quickly as possible, vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1971-1973. Kirk was the author of several works on international relations and was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and Phi Beta Kappa. He was president of the American Society of the French Legion of Honor and vice president of the Pilgrims of the United States (right from his Columbia University biography). He was a director or trustee of the Academy of Political Science, the Tinker Foundation, the Asia Foundation, the French Institute, the Institute of International Education, and of Consolidated Edison Company of New York, IBM and the Greenwich Savings Bank. Kirk received numerous international awards from universities and other institutions.

Kissinger, Heinz "Henry " Alfred
Born in 1923. After Hitler's rise to power, Kissinger's family immigrated to London in 1938. After a short stay, they moved to Washington Heights in New York City. Recruited by Fritz Kraemer during WWII. Served in the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps 1943-1946. According to Hersh, Kissinger stayed on active duty in West Germany after the war and was eventually assigned to the 970th CIC Detachment, whose functions included support for the recruitment of ex-Nazi intelligence officers for anti-Soviet operations inside the Soviet bloc. Captain in the Military Intelligence Reserve 1946-1949. Went to Harvard in 1947, where he was picked by the Rockefellers, three of whom were overseers there at the time. Executive director Harvard International Seminar 1951-1969. Became an consultant to the Operations Research Office in 1951. According to Hersh, that unit, under the direct control of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, conducted highly classified studies on such topics as the utilization of former German operatives and Nazi partisan supporters in CIA clandestine activities. Became a consultant to the Director of the Psychological Strategy Board in 1952, a covert arm of the National Security Council. The first director (and primary founder) was Gordon Gray, who served in this position from June 1951 to May 1952. Under Eisenhower, on September 2, 1953, the role of this department was expanded and the name became Operations Coordinating Board (OCB). Became an consultant to the Operations Coordinating Board in 1955, which was then the highest policy-making board for implementing clandestine operations against foreign governments. JFK would abolish the OCB in 1961 although a similar unacknowledged structure would remain operational. Became known as the most trusted aide to Nelson Rockefeller in the mid 1950s, who by then had served as Eisenhower's Special Assistant for Cold War Planning and overseer of all the CIA's clandestine operations. Member of the Department of Government, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1954-1969. Study director of nuclear weapons and foreign policy at the Council on Foreign Relations 1955-1956. Director Special Studies Project for the Rockefeller Brothers Fund 1956-1958, which worked out basic cold war policy manifestoes (hardline). They were in large part adopted by successive administrations in Washington. Author of 'Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy', released in 1957. Consultant Weapons Systems Evaluation Group of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1959-1960. Consultant National Security Council 1961-1962. Consultant RAND Corporation 1961-1968. Consultant United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency 1961-1968. Consultant to the Department of State 1965-1968. Right-hand man to Nelson Rockefeller during the 1968 Republican nomination campaign. Nixon's National Security Advisor 1969-1973. Chairman of the secretive Forty Committee, the covert apparatus of the National Security Council, from at least 1969 to 1976, which oversaw the CIA's clandestine operations. Nelson Rockefeller, even in his Senate bio, has been named as an (earlier) chairman of the Forty Committee. As head of this committee Kissinger had access to more information than the other members and he is said to have distorted it at times. During this same time period Kissinger also set up and headed the Washington Special Action Group (WSAG), another very important foreign policy group. Committee Secretary of State 1973-1977. Made two secret trips to China in 1971 to confer with Premier Zhou Enlai. Together with David Rockefeller involved in setting up the National Council for US-China Trade in 1973. Negotiated the SALT I and ABM treaty with the Soviet Union. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973. Made other secret trips to China in later years to make extremely sensitive intelligence exchanges. Robert C. McFarlane was among those who went to China with Kissinger, in his case between 1973 and 1976. Negotiated the end of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Said to have played a role in the 1973 Augusto Pinochet coup. Approved President Suharto's invasion of East-Timor in 1973, which resulted in a bout 250,000 dead communists and socialists. Oversaw the drafting of 'National Security Study Memorandum 200: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests', which was completed in December 1974 and adopted as official U.S. policy by President Gerald Ford a year later. The title of NSSM 200 is enough to make it controversial. Suspected of having been involved in Operation Condor which started around 1975 and was an assassination and intelligence gathering operation on 3 continents. Set up the Iran-US Business Council with Hushang Ansary. A meeting of the Iran-US Business Council in 1976 included Peter G. Peterson, Paul Volcker, and David Rockefeller. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1977-1981. Together with Cyrus Vance and David Rockefeller he set up the US-China Business Council in 1979, the successor to the Council for US-China Trade. Annual visitor of Bilderberg since at least the 1970s. Annual visitor of the Trilateral Commission since the late 1970s. Visited Le Cercle. Member of the Pilgrims Society. Visitor of Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. May 17, 2002 issue, Jeffrey Steinberg for Executive Intelligence Review, 'Ariel Sharon: Profile of an Unrepentant War Criminal': "On Nov. 15, 1982, a final meeting took place on several real estate purchases, mostly through Arab middle-men, to push the massive expansion of Jewish settlements throughout the West Bank at a handsome profit. Attending the meeting at Sharon's ranch were: Kissinger [Cercle], Lord Harlech (Sir David Ormsby-Gore), Johannes von Thurn und Taxis [1001 Club], Tory Parliamentarian Julian Amery [Cercle], Sir Edmund Peck, and MI-6 Mideast mandarin Nicholas Elliot [Cercle]." Founder of Kissinger Associates in 1982, a secretive consulting firm to international corporations. Some of the first members to join Kissinger Associates were Brent Scowcroft (vice-chairman), Lawrence Eagleburger (president), Lord Carrington, Lord Roll of Ipsden, and Pehr Gyllenhammar. Some served until 1989, others were still active for Kissinger Associates in the late 1990s. 1992, Senator John Kerry and Senator Hank Brown, Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, part 20:: "Beginning in the fall of 1986, and continuing through early 1989, BCCI initiated a series of contacts with perhaps the most politically prominent international and business consulting firm in the United States -- Kissinger Associates." Chairman National Bipartisan Commission on Central America 1983-1984. Set up the America-China Society in 1987, together with Robert McFarlane and Cyrus Vance. Appointed chairman of AIG's advisory council in 1987. Received the Charlemagne award in 1987. Director of the Atlanta branch of the Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL) from 1985 to 1991. This was during the 1989 BNL Affair (Iraq Gate) in which it became known that the Atlanta branch had made $4 billion in unreported loans to Iraq. After the revelation, the money was said to be used by the Iraqis to buy food and agriculture equipment, but in reality they were buying loads of military equipment. His consultancy firm, Kissinger Associates, set up the China Ventures fund with CITIC in 1989, which would be in the same year that he defended the Tiananmen Square massacre, arguing against sanctions being placed on China. Director of the Financial Services Volunteer Corps (FSVC), which was founded in 1990 by Pilgrims Society members Cyrus Vance and John C. Whitehead. Paul Volcker has been among the chairmen of the FSVC, which describes itself as "a not-for-profit, private-public partnership whose mission is to help build sound banking and financial systems in transition and developing countries." In 1990, he sat on boards of American Express, Union Pacific, R.M. Macy, Continental Grain, CBS, and the Revlon Group. Also a consultant to ABC news at this time. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Member of the Council of Advisors of the United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce. Trustee of the Center Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the Arthur F Burns Fellowship, the Institute of International Education, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Honorary Governor of the Foreign Policy Association. Patron of the Atlantic Partnership and the New Atlantic Initiative. Chairman of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, the Nixon Center, and the American Academy in Berlin. Co-chairman of the Editorial Board of 'The National Interest' magazine. Chancellor of the College William and Mary. Honorary chairman World Cup USA 1994 (Kissinger has attended football matches with his friend and colleague Etienne Davignon). Honorary chairman of the National Interest, a neocon foreign policy magazine founded by Irving Kristol, who also founded the CIA's magazine Encounter. Members of the advisory council of the the National Interest have included Morton Abramowitz, Dov Zakheim, John Mearsheimer, Conrad Black and James Schlesinger. Daniel Pipes has been a long time contributor to the National Interest. Co-founded the privately-funded American Acadamy in Berlin in 1994, together with Richard Holbrooke, Richard von Weizsäcker, Fritz Stern, and Otto Count Lambsdorff. Named Honorary Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George, 1995. Director Freeport-McMoRan 1995-2001. Director of Conrad Black's Hollinger International Inc. Member of J.P. Morgan's International Advisory Council. Former member of the Advisory Council of Forstmann Little & Co. and American Express. Advisor to China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC). Member of the Europe Strategy Board of Hicks, Muse, Tate & Furst. Director of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation. Chairman of the International Advisory Board of the American International Group (AIG), a partner of Kissinger Associates. Also chairman of the Advisory Boards of AIG Asian Infrastructure Funds I & II and a director of AIG Global. In 1997, Kissinger became the central advisor to the Business Coalition for US-China Trade, a group of about a 1000 leading companies willing to invest in China. In 2000, Henry Kissinger was quoted by Business Wire: "Hank Greenberg, Pete Peterson and I have been close friends and business associates for decades." Maurice Greenburg is head of AIG and Peter G. Peterson is head of The Blackstone Group, which is the other major partner of Kissinger Associates. Peterson is also a former chairman of Lehman Brothers. Kissinger is a friend of Lynn Forester and introduced her to Sir Evelyn de Rothschild at the 1998 Bilderberg conference. They would soon become married. After Pulitzer Price winning journalist Peter Arnett produced a CNN report on Operation Tailwind (a Vietnam operation in which US Special Forces allegedly killed US defectors with Sarin) in 1998, Kissinger and his friends called up CNN to demand that the news network should distance itself from the story (a story which CNN initially approved) and made sure that the producers of the show were publicly humiliated and fired. Arnett was fired again by NBC and National Geographic in March 2003 immediately after he said the Bush Administration was looking for a plan B now that Iraqi resistance turned out to be much more intense than expected. Within 24 hours the Daily Mail hired him. When Henry Kissinger is invited to speak at the United Nations Association on April 11, 2001 Lord Jacob Rothschild is flanking his side. Picked as the initial head of the 9/11 investigating committee in 2003, although he turned out to be too controversial to remain in that position. Henry Kissinger is a patron of the Open Russia Foundation since 2001, together with Lord Jacob Rothschild. The Foundation was set up by Mikhail Khodorkovsky, a controversial oligarch, later locked up by Putin. Honorary trustee of the Aspen Institute. Director of the Board of Overseers of the International Rescue Committee (IRC), together with Madeleine Albright, Maurice Greenberg, Henry Kissinger, Felix Rohatyn, and James Wolfensohn. John Whitehead, Tom Brokaw, and Winston Lord have all been chairmen of the Board of Overseers. Member of the advisory board of Trireme Partner LLP until early 2003, together with Conrad Black (1001 Club). Trireme, set up two months after 9/11, is a venture capital company that invests in technology, goods, and services related to Homeland Security and defense. It argued that the fear of terrorism would increase the demand for such products in Europe and in countries like Saudi Arabia and Singapore. Richard Perle (good friend of former Cercle chairman Brian Crozer) is the company's managing partner, with another partner being Gerald Hillman, a friend of Perle. When Otto von Habsburg visited the United States in April 2005, one of the few people he spoke with, besides the general meetings, was Henry Kissinger. Because of previous international attempts by European and South American judges to question him, he is known to take legal advice before traveling to certain countries in either continent.

Kitchener, Lord Horatio H.
Member of the Order of the Garter, the Order of Saint Patrick, the Order of the Bath, the Order of Merit, the Order of the Star of India, the Order of the Indian Empire, the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, and the Privy Council. Also an Aide de Camp to Queen Victoria. Kitchener was born in Ballylongford, County Kerry in Ireland. Educated in Switzerland and at the Royal Military Academy, he offered to fight with the French in the Franco-Prussian War before he joined the Royal Engineers in 1871. In 1874 Lt. Horatio Kitchener was appointed as assistant to Lt. C.R. Conder, on the Survey of Western Palestine. During 1874 and 1875, along with their team of Royal Engineers N.C.O.s and enlisted men, they surveyed large areas of the country. In 1882, Kitchener served with the British forces in Egypt during the suppression of the nationalist revolt led by Col. Arabi. In 1883, he took part in the Survey of the Wady Arabah and northeastern Sinai with Professor Edward Hull, on behalf of the Fund. After duty in Palestine and Cyprus, he was attached (1883) to the Egyptian army, then being reorganized by the British. Initiated into freemasonry in La Concordia Lodge, Cairo in 1883. He took part (1884–85) in the unsuccessful attempt to relieve Charles George Gordon at Khartoum. He was then (1886–88) governor-general of Eastern Sudan and helped (1889) turn back the last Mahdist invasion of Egypt. In 1892 he was made commander in chief of the Egyptian army and in 1896 began the reconquest of Sudan, having prepared the way by a reorganization of the army and the construction of a railway along the Nile. A series of victories culminated (1898) in the battle of Omdurman and the reoccupation of Khartoum. After becoming Sirdar of the Egyptian Army he headed the victorious Anglo-Egyptian army at the Battle of Omdurman on September 2, 1898, a victory made possible by the massive rail construction program he had instituted in the area. Kitchener quite possibly prevented war between France and Britain when he dealt firmly but non-violently with the French military expedition to claim Fashoda, in what became known as the Fashoda Incident. He also reformed the debt laws, preventing rapacious moneylenders from stripping away all assets of impoverished farmers, guaranteeing them five acres (20 000 m²) of land to farm for themselves and the tools to farm with. In 1899 Kitchener was presented with a small island in the Nile at Aswan as in gratitude for his services; the island was renamed Kitchener's Island in his honour. Became freemasonry District Grand Master of Egypt and Sudan in 1899. During the Second Boer War (1899–1902), Kitchener arrived with Lord Roberts and the massive British reinforcements of December 1899. Kitchener was made overall commander in November 1900 following Roberts' removal due to illness. Following the defeat of the conventional Boer forces, and the failure of a reconciliatory peace treaty in February 1901 (due to British cabinet veto) that Kitchener had negotiated with the Boer leaders, Kitchener inherited and expanded the successful strategies devised by Roberts to crush the Boer guerrillas. His no-prisoners policy became quite controversial. Following this, Kitchener was made Commander-in-Chief in India (1902–1909), where he reconstructed the greatly disorganised Indian army, against the wishes of the bellicose viceroy Lord Curzon (pilgrims Society), who became a passionate and lifelong enemy. Kitchener was promoted to Field Marshal in 1910; however, largely due to a Curzon-inspired whispering campaign, he was turned down for the post of Viceroy of India in 1911. He then returned to Egypt as Viceroy of Egypt and the Sudan (1911–1914). At the outset of World War I (1914), Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War. Against cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that would last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat Germany, and suffer huge casualties before the end would come. In 1916, Lord Kitchener embarked aboard the armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire for his diplomatic mission to Russia. While en route to the Russian port of Arkhangelsk, Hampshire struck a mine during a Force 9 gale and sank west of the Orkney Islands. His body was never found.

Kleinwort, Sir Cyril Hugh
Son of Sir Alexander Drake Kleinwort. Member of a British merchant and banking family that goes back to the 18th century. In 1897 Kleinwort, Sons & Co. went into business with Goldman Sachs & Co. of New York, today one of the largest investment firms on the planet. Director of Kleinwort, Benson, Lonsdale Ltd. Director of Commercial Union. According to the Telegraph in 2003, the British Invisible Exports Council (later British Invisibles, now IFSL) was the brainchild of Cyril Kleinwort. The acquisition of the bullion dealer Sharps Pixley in 1966 gave Kleinwort Benson a seat on the London gold price fixing committee that met twice daily in the offices of N M Rothschild & Sons. Co-founded Population Concern in 1977 with Earnest Kleinwort, Prince Philip, Lord Caradon, Lord Renton and Lord McCorquodale. In 1995 Kleinwort Benson was taken over by Dresdner Bank to form Dresdner Kleinwort Benson. The bank subsequently merged with Wasserstein Perella of New York to become Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein and is a subsidiary of Allianz.
His nephew Kenneth Drake Kleinwort was a member of the 1001 Club.

Knight, Robert Huntington
Attorney Shearman & Sterling, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1977-1983, member Council on Foreign Relations, director National Leadership Bank, heir to the Whitney fortune, trustee Asia Foundation.

Krech, Alvin W.
Chairman Equitable Trust Co. in the 1920s, involved with financing Communism.

Lader, Philip
Philip Lader's education includes: Duke University (Phi Beta Kappa), The University of Michigan (M.A., History), graduate studies in law at Oxford University, and Harvard Law School (J.D.). He has been awarded honorary doctorates by 14 American and British universities and colleges. President of Sea Pines Company and Executive Vice President of the late Sir James Goldsmith’s US holding company. His education includes a juris doctorate from Harvard Law School, a master of arts degree in history from the University of Michigan, a bachelor of arts degree (Phi Beta Kappa) from Duke University, as well as graduate studies in law at Oxford University. In 1981 Lader founded the Renaissance Weekends. His wife, Linda LeSourd Lader, is President of the Renaissance Institute. Between 1991 and 1993 he was president of the controversial first private university in Australia, Bond University. White House Deputy Chief of Staff and Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget 1993-1994. From October 1994 until 1997 he was the Administrator of the U.S. Small Business Administration. US Ambassador to Britain 1997-2001. As ex-ambassador, almost reduced to tears in a British show 2 days after 911. Lader tried to express his sadness over the attacks when a number of audience members had shouted him down to voice their anti-US opinions. Lader is an Honorary Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford University, and London Business School, an Honorary Bencher of the Middle Temple, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Chief Executives Organization. Currently a Senior Advisor to Morgan Stanley, a director of RAND, Marathon Oil and AES Corporations, a member of the Council of Lloyds, a trustee of the British Museum, and a board member of Saint Paul's Cathedral, the Windsor Leadership Trust, the Prince of Wales' Trust and the British-American Business Advisory Council. He is also a partner in the law firm, Nelson, Mullins, Riley & Scarborough. Non-executive chairman of WPP since 2001, the communications company that owns PR companies including Hill & Knowlton, Burson-Marsteller, GCI, and Cohn & Wolfe.

Lamington, 2nd Lord
Full name was Charles Wallace Alexander Napier Cochrane-Baillie. Oxford friend of Pilgrims Society member Lord Curzon. Served under Curzon in India. Served as assistant private secretary to the 3rd Marquess Salisbury (Cecil; coordinator of the later Round Table), Prime Minister in 1885. Member of Parliament for North St Pancras 1886-1890. Governor of Queensland 1895-1901. Identified as a member of the Pilgrims Society in 1903. Governor of Bombay 1903-1907. Elected as the Grand Master of all Scottish Freemasonry in India on July 24, 1904. Co-founder of the Persia Society of London in 1911, a non-political body designed "to promote the sympathy existing between the British and Persian nations". Lord Lamington became the President of its Council of seven, which included Sir Thomas Barclay. Initial president of the Iran Society, which was founded in 1935. The Aga Khan of that time, a family which is still closely associated with the Rockefellers, Rothschilds, Lazards, and Buckleys of today, was one of the first to give a lecture to that society in 1936. Attended the March 13, 1940 Royal central Asian Society meeting at Caxton Hall where Sir Michael O'Dwyer was assassinated and himself wounded. Received the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Lamont, Thomas William
chairman exec. committee
Harvard, reporter New York Tribune in 1893, secretary Bankers Trust Company 1903-1904, vice-president Bankers Trust Company, partner J.P. Morgan & Co. 1911, representative of the United States Treasury at the WWI Paris peace talks in 1919, director of the First National Bank of New York, became chairman of J.P. Morgan & Company when Jack Morgan died in 1943, director U.S. Steel, A.T. & San Francisco Railway; International Agricultural Corporation, chairman International Consortium for Assistance to China, honorary chairman associated Harvard Clubs, arranged a $100 million loan to Mussolini in 1926. Has been described as one of the most influential persons of his time. According to Carroll Quigley, he and his son were primary sponsors of the Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR).

Lamont, Gordon
Cousin of Pilgrims Corliss and Thomas Lamont, director Lamont, Corliss & Company 1925-1951, president of Dairy Industry Supply Association 1944-1946, director Dairy Society International, chairman Beryllium Corporation 1955-1958, director of Nestle, mayor of Jupiter Island, Florida, 1967-1977.

Lamont, Thomas Stilwell
Overseer of Harvard University, joined J.P. Morgan & Co. in 1922, vice chairman 1955-1958, director Phelps-Dodge Corporation (the world's number two leading producer of copper and molybdenum and is the world's largest producer of continuous-cast copper rod), director International Minerals & Chemicals, director Texas Gulf Sulphur, director Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, trustee Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, president Phillips Exeter Academy 1946-1956.

Lansing, Robert
His father-in-law was the grandfather of John and Allen Dulles, founded the American Journal of International Law in 1907 and remained an editor of it until his death, Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson 1915-1920 , strong advocate of U.S. participation in World War I, nominal head of the U.S. commission to the Paris Peace Conference, did not regard the League of Nations as essential to the peace treaty and began to fall out of favor with Wilson, legal counsel to the Chinese Government, trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Lavis, Fred
Married Blanche Biddle of Nicholas Biddle in 1902, U.S. president of International Railways of Central America in 1928.

Lee, Ivy L.
newspaperman in New York City, lecturer London School of Economics 1911-1912, public relations expert and publicist for the Pennsylvania Railroad and for John D. Rockefeller Jr., working for Rockefeller he laid the foundation for Communist propaganda and is even said to have inspired Hitler and Stalin on this subject, made a 2-week trip to Russia on behalf of John D. Rockefeller in May of 1927, member of the Royal Economic Society, director Research Corporation 1925-1934.

Lee, James E.
Son of Ivy L. Lee, member Royal Economic Society, chairman and CEO Gulf Oil Corporation, director Chevron. Joy Manufacturing Co., Pittsburgh National Bank, PNC Financial Corp., Gulf Canada Ltd., the American Petroleum Institute and West Penn Hospital, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Leffingwell, Russell C.
Under Secretary of the Treasury. Director and trustee Carnegie Corporation, present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1943. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1943-1944. President Council on Foreign Relations 1944-1946. Chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1946-1953. Senior partner J.P. Morgan & Company. Chairman J.P. Morgan & Company 1948-1950. Co-founder of the American-Australian Association in 1948. Good friend of John Maynard Keynes, who he would receive at his Morgan office when Keynes visited the United States. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1953-1960.

Lehman, Robert
1891 - 1969
The Lehmans are one of America's most prominent German-Jewish dynasties. Their ancestor, Abraham Lehmann (1785-1865), lived in the Bavarian village of Rimpar. After their emigration to Montgomery, Alabama, in the middle of the nineteenth century, his sons founded the banking firm of Lehman Brothers, today one of the most prestigious on Wall Street. Educated at Yale University. Robert Lehman was chairman of Lehman Brothers until 1969. He was the first one to invite non-family members to become partners in the firm. Had a large art collection.

Leslie, John Ethelbert
Governor of the United Nations Association. Director of the Foreign Policy Association. Director of the France-America Society. Chairman Bache Group. Trustee of the Institute for International Education. Co-founder of the The American Austrian Foundation in 1984, together with Cyrus Vance, David Rockefeller, and George Ball. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Recipient of decorations from Portugal, France, Austria and West Germany.

Louis, John J., Jr.
died 1995
He enrolled at Northwestern for one year before entering World War II as a aviator. After service he graduated from Williams College and then received an MBA from Amos Tuck at Dartmouth. After several years in advertising John became a venture capitalist. In 1946, John J. Louis became Chairman of the Board of The KTAR Broadcasting Company. Father died in 1959. Chairman of The KTAR Broadcasting Company by 1960. Long a contributor to the republican party. Ambassador to Great Britain 1981-1983. Trustee of Northwestern University from 1972 to 1995.

Lucas, Charles Clement, Jr.
Son of Charles Clement Lucas, Sr., and Sallie Elizabeth Williams was born in Wilson, North Carolina. He attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill where he received an A.B. in Chemistry and History, and the Doctor of Medicine. He completed his medical training at Duke University where he was Chief Resident of Family Practice. He was elected to membership in the Order of the Old Well at the University of North Carolina. For his medical leadership activities in North Carolina he received The Order of the Long Leaf Pine, the highest award given by the State of North Carolina. Dr. Lucas served in the United States Public Health Service from 1970-1972 and was commissioned as Senior Assistant Surgeon. Dr. Lucas moved to New York City in 1979 where he lived until 1988 when he moved to Greenwich, Connecticut. He maintains a private practice of internal medicine in Larchmont, New York, and is certified by the American Board of Family Practice. r. Lucas is a member of the Pilgrims of the United States; Northeast Harbor Swim and Tennis; Squadron A Association of New York; Northeast Harbor Fleet; The Union Club of the City of New York; Soldiers Sailors Marines Airmen Club; American Philosophical Society; Youth Foundation of the City of New York; Christ Episcopal Church, Greenwich; New York Academy of Sciences; North Carolina Society of the City of New York; The Dinner Dancers of the City of New York. He is also a member of the Holland Lodge #8, F &AM; Ancient Chapter No.1, Royal Arch Masons; Morton Commandery No. 4, New York City, Knights Templar; Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Valley of New York, 32nd degree. Leading figure in many blue blood/templar organizations. Among them are the Society of Descendants of Knights of the Garter, Order of the Crown in America, National Society Americans of Royal Descent, Order of the Merovingian Dynasty (Founder Member; Secretary General), Order of the Crown of Charlemagne in the United States, Military Order of the Crusades, Order of Three Crusades 1096-1192, Order of Descendants of Ancient Planters, General Society of Colonial Wars , etc., etc. Serving Brother of the Order of St. John (bestowed by Queen Elizabeth II). Chirurgeon of the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem.

Luce, Henry Robinson
His mother was Elizabeth Root, from a family that had earlier intermarried with the Spencers and Pomeroys. Born in Shantung Province, China, in Presbyterian mission house. Attended Chefoo School, Chefoo [Yantai], China from 1908-1912. Attended St. Alban's School north of London, England 1912-1913. Attended Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn. 1913-1916. B.A., Yale University in 1920 where he was introduced into Skull & Bones. Student at Oxford University in England 1920-1921. Reporter for the Chicago Daily News and Baltimore Sun 1921-1922. Cofounded Time with Briton Hadden (Skull & Bones 1920) in 1923 with the help of J.P. Morgan partners Thomas Lamont and Dwight Morrow. Harvey Firestone, E. Roland Harriman, and various members of the Harkness family were other funders of his early media empire. Married to Lila Holz 1923-1935. Founded Fortune in 1930. Editor-in-chief, Time Publications 1930-1938. First “March of Time” radio program in 1931. First “March of Time” newsreel in 1935. Married Clare Boothe Luce, a Dame of Malta, in 1935. Founded Life in 1936. Editorial director, Time, inc. 1938. Organizer of United China Relief in 1940. Initiated the Commission on Freedom of the Press in 1944. Awarded the Order of Auspicious Star (China) in 1947. Founded House and Home in 1952. Founded Sports Illustrated in 1954. Influential member of the Republican Party. Member of the Atlantic Union. Luce was a strong opponent of Fidel Castro and his revolutionary government in Cuba. This included the funding of Alpha 66 (which was guided by the CIA). In 1962 and 1963 Alpha 66 launched several raids on Cuba which included attacks on port installations and foreign shipping. When Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, Luce's Life Magazine purchased the Zapruder Film for $150,000. Soon after the assassination they also successfully negotiated with Marina Oswald the exclusive rights to her story. This story never appeared in print, but in an interview she gave to the Ladies Home Journal in September 1988 she argued: "I believe he worked for the American government... He was taught the Russian language when he was in the military. Do you think that is usual, that an ordinary soldier is taught Russian? Also, he got in and out of Russia quite easily, and he got me out quite easily." Luce published individual frames of Zapruder's film but did not allow the film to be screened in its entirety. It was shown to the public in March 1975 which convinced many that the fatal head shot come from the Grassy Knoll (because of Kennedy's violent backward and leftward movement while the bullet is supposed to have come from the back). Writers such as Noel Twyman, David Lifton, Jack White, John Costella and David Mantik have claimed that the Zapruder Film has been tampered with. Retired from Time/Life in 1964.

Luce, Henry III
Sources: September 12, 2005, New York Times, obituary
Born in New York City in 1925, he was the elder son of Time Inc.'s late co-founder and editor-in-chief, Henry Robinson Luce (his second wife was a Dame of Malta), and the late Lila Hotz Tyng. The original Henry Luce was a Skull & Bones member, a media giant (owned Time, Fortune & Life Magazine together with House & Home and Sports Illustrated), and quickly bought and held on to the JFK Zapruder film in 1963. Henry Luce III worked his way up in his father's media empire and later inherited it. Luce began at Time as a correspondent in Washington, D.C. Moving to New York in 1953, he served as a Time contributing editor whose cover stories included those on Joseph R. McCarthy and then Vice President Richard M. Nixon. In 1956 he became head of the Time's New Building Department which planned and supervised construction of the new Time & Life Building in Rockefeller Center. Following completion of the building in 1960, he held a number of posts at Time Inc., including Circulation Director of Fortune, Architectural Forum and House and Home. In 1964 he became a vice president of Time Inc., and later, director of Research and Development. He became Time's London Bureau Chief in 1966, publisher of Fortune in 1968 and publisher of Time in 1969. Before joining the Time, Inc., Mr. Luce served on the staff of the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government (the first Hoover Commission) as assistant to Commissioner Joseph P. Kennedy (Knight of Malta), followed by two years as a reporter for the Cleveland Press. CEO & president Henry Luce Foundation 1958-1990. Chairman Henry Luce Foundation 1990-2002. Trustee of Princeton Theological Seminary, the Center of Theological Inquiry, The Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, The New York Historical Society, the Brooklyn Museum of Art, and A Christian Ministry in National Parks. He is a director of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations and of the Foreign Policy Association, as well as the founding member of the American Council for the United Nations University. He is Chairman of the Graduate Theological Union's President's Advisory Council, and he is a charter member of Yale University's President's Council on International Activities. He is a commissioner of the National Museum of American Art, and on the Advisory Councils of the Fulbright Commission, The Newark Museum and the National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art. He is an emeritus life trustee of the College of Wooster. He is Chairman of American Security Systems, Inc. and a director of the Fishers Island Development Company. He is the former president of the New Museum of Contemporary Art (1977-1998). From 1960 to 1972 he was president of the board of trustees of St., Bernard's School, Gladstone, New Jersey. He is the former chairman of the China Institute in America (1975-1978) and was a trustee from 1988-1998. He is a former trustee of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia (1958-1993), the American Federation of Arts, the Academy of American Poets, the Pan American Development Foundation (1983-1994), the American Friends of Canada (1990-1994), the Skowhegan School of Painting & Sculpture (1973-88), the Yale-China Association (1979-88) and the Association to Unite the Democracies (1982-88) and a former director of Circle Repertory Company (1981-88) and of the U.S. Committee for UNICEF (1990-1993). He is an elder of the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church and president of the Pilgrims of the United States. He is a member of The Brook and the University Club (former Council member).

Maclamroc, James Gwaltney Westwarren
exec. committee
Historian, attorney, colonel, North Carolina financier, broadcasting magnate, land baron, Order of the Crown in America, Society of Americans of Royal Descent, directed the design of the seal for his county (Guilford).

Macomber, John Dewitt
Married into the Morgan family. CEO and chairman Celanese Corporation. CEO of JDM Investment Group. Chairman and president of the Export-Import Bank of the U.S. (EXIMBANK)1989-1992. Director of R.J. Reynolds Industries and Chase Manhattan Bank. Member Atlantic Institute for International Affairs, the Pilgrims Society, the Atlantic Council of the United States, and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Makins, Lord Roger Mellor
Born in 1904. Became the 1st Baron Sherfield. Fellow of All Souls, the chief headquarters of the Round Table Group according to professor Carroll Quigley. Joined the Foreign Office at the age of 24. Became part of the Milner Group according to Quigley. Assistant adviser and adviser on League of Nations affairs to the Foreign Office 1937-1939. Secretary to the British delegation to the Evian Conference in 1938. After the Evian Conference, Makins was made secretary to the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees. During World War II he was advisor to Harold Macmillan in North Africa and met Eisenhower. United Kingdom representative on United Nations Interim Commission for Food and Agriculture in 1945. Minister at the British Embassy in Washington 1945-1947. Alternate delegate to the fifth session of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration in 1946. Architect of the British Marshall Scholarships programme. Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1947-1948. Deputy Under Secretary 1948-1952. British ambassador to Washington 1952-1956. Joint Permanent Secretary of the Treasury in 1956. First chairman of the Ditchley Foundation. Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (at least in 1965, when he visited Karachi, Pakistan). Chairman of the Imperial College of London 1962-1974. Chancellor of the University of Reading. Chairman of the Select Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Lords. Knight of the Order of St Michael and St George. Knight of the Order of the Bath. Member of the Pilgrims Society and identified as a governor of the Atlantic Institute of International Affairs in 1987. Died in 1996.
His son, Christopher J. Makins (the second Lord Sherfield), was born in Southampton, NY, educated at New College, Oxford, where he earned first class honors in Modern History in 1963, and was elected a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford in 1963. He is fluent in French and a U.S. and British dual national. Served for 11 years as a member of Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service, working in London, Paris and Washington. Deputy director of the Trilateral Commission 1975-1976. Deputy director at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 1977-1979. Division manager and assistant vice president at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) 1979-1989. Makins worked in partnership with former U.S. Deputy Defense Secretary Robert Ellsworth (Lazard; Bilderberg; CFR; Atlantic Institute) to provide a regular newsletter on U.S. foreign-economic and defense policy and domestic politics from 1981 to 1994. Director at the Roosevelt Center for American Policy Studies 1984-1988. Vice president and then executive vice president of the Aspen Institute from 1989 to 1997, where he was involved with the European and Asian partners. Senior Adviser to the German Marshall Fund of the United States 1997-1999. President of the Atlantic Council of the United States since September 1999.

Mallory, Walter Hampton
Special assistant to the American ambassador in Petrograd (former capital of Russia) 1916-1917, president of the China Institute in America 1943-1947, Rockefeller's China Medical Board beginning in 1947 and on, director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1959, director Council on Foreign Relations 1959-1968, decorated the Order of Pure Gold by China.

Marburg, Theodore
Vice-president of the Vanderbilt run American Economic Association, U.S. Minister to Belgium 1912-1914, big player in the formation of The League of Nations and wrote a bunch of books about it (starting in 1917), founded the American Society for the Judicial Settlement in 1920, trustee of Johns Hopkins University.

Marcosson, Isaac Frederick
Well-known correspondent for the Saturday Evening Post 1907-1936, interviewed many important people, wrote some 30 books, including “The Rebirth of Russia” and “The Business of War”, (both in 1917).

Marshall, George Catlett
Virginia Military Institute. Kappa Alpha Order. Order of the Bath (Knight Grand Cross). USSR Order of Suvarov. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe. Selected Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Commander in Europe and designed Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy. Throughout the remainder of World War II, Marshall coordinated all Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. Unofficial ambassador of Truman to China 1945-1947. Secretary of State 1947–1949. Devised the Marshall Plan. Received the Distinguished Achievement Award for his role as military leader in and after WWII (1948). After WW II he was sent to China to negotiate a truce and build a coalition government between the Nationalists and Communists fighting the Chinese Civil War. His efforts failed and he was recalled in January 1947. Secretary of Defense in 1950, but retired from politics for good in 1951 after Senator Joseph McCarthy implied he was a traitor and denounced him for making decisions that "aided the Communist drive for world domination". He became president of the American National Red Cross in 1950 and received the Nobel Peace Prize 1953. Marshall Scholars are common among Pilgrims.

Martin, Luther III
Chemical, oil and gas tycoon, president Alumni Society of the University of Pennsylvania 1936-1938.

Martin, William McChesney, Jr.
Chairman Export-Import Bank of the U.S., assistant Treasury Secretary, director World Bank, chairman Federal Reserve System 1951-1970 and reorganised the NY Stock Exchange. Director U.S. Steel, Freeport Minerals Company, Scandinavian Securities Corporation, Riggs National Bank, American Express, Caterpillar Tractor, Dow Jones & Company, Eli Lilly & Company, General Foods, and Royal Dutch Shell Petroleum. Trustee Yale University, member Atlantic Council of the United States, member Council on Foreign Relations. His father was a governor and president of the Federal Reserve Bank of of St. Louis and was summoned by Woodrow Wilson to establish the Federal Reserve Act of 1913.

Martin, Alastair Bradley
His mother was Helen Phipps, director Bessemer Securities Corporation, president Regional Broadcasters Group.

Maull, Baldwin
Chairman of Marine Midland Bank, member of the council of the American Numismatic Society (1969)

Mayer, John Anton
Director General Motors, H.J. Heinz Foods, Armco Steel, Edgewater Steel, Westinghouse, Consolidated Coal Company, PPG Industries, Norfolk & Western Railway, Duquesne Light Company, Lincoln National Life Insurance, Pittsburgh Baseball Club and others. Owned First Boston Corporation, of which Pilgrim Society member, Mellon agent Emil J. Pattberg Jr. was chairman.

McCain, John Sidney, Jr.
McCain was an Admiral in the United States Navy. His father John S. McCain, Sr. was also an admiral in the Navy, and his son John S. McCain III is a US Senator representing Arizona. Born in Council Bluffs, Iowa, he graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1931. During World War II, "Junior" – who preferred to be called "Jack" – commanded the submarines USS Gunnel and Dentuda. Subsequently he held a number of posts, rising to Commander-in-Chief of the United States Pacific Command before retiring in 1972. He was involved in the investigations that followed the USS Liberty incident. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. USS John S. McCain (DDG-56) was named for him and his father.

McCloy, John Jay
Catholic. Harvard Law School 1921. As a lawyer he gained an international reputation when after a long investigation he fixed responsibility on the German government for the Black Tom munitions explosion in Hoboken, N.J., in 1917. Partner at Cravath, Henderson & DeGersdorff, Wall Street's most powerful law firm in the years before WWII. Assistant Secretary of War in World War II 1941-1945 (recruited by Henry L. Stimson, who he advised). Helped write the Lend-Lease bill. Opposed the "Morgenthau Plan" to de-industrialize Germany. Served as chairman of the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee. Oversaw Germany's return to statehood and released Fritz Thyssen, Hjalmar Schacht, Friedrich Flick, and Alfred Krupp. Mccloy also released SS officer Klaus Barbie, the person who dreamed up Hitler's Final Solution and was responsible for the rape, torture, and murder of thousands of people. Barbie ended up in Bolivia where he became responsible for setting up the local US-allied death squads and the early drug exporting routes. Became a partner in Milbank, Tweed, Hope, Hadley & McCloy right after WWII. President of the World Bank 1947-1949 (without any experience in banking). U.S. military governor and high commissioner for Germany 1949-1952. Chairman Chase National Bank 1953-1960. 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs': "Given the similarity in our interests, I was disappointed that Jack and I never developed a close personal relationship... Frequently at gatherings I attended, Jack related the story of his first contact with my family. He had worked his way to college and law school in part by tutoring during the summer and had travelled to Maine in the summer of 1912, three years before I was born, hoping to get a job on Mount Desert Island. One of the families he decided to contact was mine... [he was] turned away... Nelson [Rockefeller] reportedly told him the "family had used its influence" to make him chairman and that one of his jobs was to ensure that "David would succeed him when he retired." It seems quite possible that Nelson made the comment or one quite similar to it. He could be quite high-handed and no doubt thought he was doing me a favor. But if Nelson made a statement of this kind, it certainly was not the result of a family decision or a request from me. It would have been highly inappropriate for anyone in the family to make such a demand. Unfortunately, if the story was true, it may have permanently altered Jack's attitude toward me... Quite possibly Jack could never look at me without remembering the long, dusty walk up the hill in Seal Harbor and the big wooden door being closed quietly but firmly in his face." Chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1953-1970, where David Rockefeller followed him up in that position. Member of the Pilgrims Society. Visitor of Bilderberg. Governor of the Atlantic Institute for International Affairs. Chairman Ford Foundation 1958-1965. President Kennedy's principal disarmament adviser 1961-1963. Member of the Warren Commission 1963. Author of The Challenge of American Foreign Policy (1953) and The Atlantic Alliance (1969).

McGarrah, Gates W.
Chairman Chase National Bank until 1927, U.S. member of the General Council of the German Reichsbank until 1927, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1927-1930, first president of the Bank for International Settlements 1930.

McHugh, Keith Stratton
Related to the Aldrich family, director National City Bank, Carrier Corporation, Dun & Bradstreet, Empire City Subway and American Telephone & Telegraph, trustee Carnegie Institution of Washington 1950-1974.

Mellon, Andrew W.
Owned his father's banking firm, father's banking firm, T. Mellon & Sons, at age 27, helped organize Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh in 1889, built a great personal fortune from oil, steel, shipbuilding, and construction. During the World War I years he participated in many patriotic civilian activities such as the American Red Cross, the National War Council of the YMCA, the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania State Council of National Defense, and the National Research Council of Washington. He was U.S. Secretary of the Treasury 1921-1932, member Federal Reserve System 1921-1932, United States ambassador to Great Britain 1932-1933, director of 51 corporations and stockholder in more than 300 corporations, polluted the environment to the extreme, underpayed his imported workers tremendously, kept them in very unhealthy conditions and even had troublesome workers tortured and killed if necessary. As of 1928 armed private police forces watched over his mines. He was very close with the British royals. He was one of the few who held his own against the Rockefellers and J.P. Morgan. Freemason.

Mellon, Paul W.
His father was known as a ruthless businessman who greatly suppressed his workers in all his hundreds of companies and polluted the environment to the extreme. He was the only one to hold his own against the Rockefellers and the Morgans. Paul was a member of Yale Scroll & Key. He didn't spend much time in business. Long-time neighbor of the powerful Averell Harriman and worked together with his son-in-law. During WWII, Paul Mellon became OSS station chief in London and liaison to British Intelligence. After WWII, Martin A. Lee and Bruce Schlain note in Acid Dreams: "... members of the Mellon family maintained close ties with the CIA. The Mellon family foundations have been used repeatedly as conduits for Agency funds. Furthermore, Richard Helms was a frequent weekend guest of the Mellon patriarchs in Pittsburgh during his tenure as CIA director [1966-1973]." Buckingham Palace told Executive Intelligence Review investigator, Scott Thompson: "The Queen has known Mr. Mellon for many years and visited his estate at Upperville, Virginia, probably for the first time in the 1950s." Founded the Old Dominion Foundation which merged to become the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Philanthropist, art collector and horse breeder. Established the Yale Center for British Art. Summer 1999, Yale Alumni Magazine: "President Levin noted in his tribute that "of the many thousands who have contributed to Yale University, none has done more than he [Paul Mellon] to shape and support it."..." At his death, Mellon left Yale $90 million and more than 130 works of art-the largest single gift ever to the University. Zodiac Club member J. Carter Brown wrote an obituary of him in Yale Alumni Magazine. Mellon has been a member of the 1001 Club and the Pilgrims Society.

Metcalf, Bryce
exec. committee
As of 1938, President General of the Society of the Cincinnati, which is very likely the American counterpart of English Order of the Garter or the Scottish Order of the Thistle.

Milbank, Jeremiah
Wealthy New York investment broker in the first half of the 20th century. Director Chase National Bank of New York. Director Equitable Trust Company. Owner Southern Railway Co. Trustee Georgia Warm Springs Foundation in 1934. Partner in the New York law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hope, Hadley & McCloy.

Miller, William Christian
Reynolds Securities of New York.

Milner, Lord Alfred
Oxford. London journalist for a short time. Private secretary to George Goschen (chancellor of the exchequer) 1887-1890. Undersecretary of finance in Egypt 1890-1892. Wrote a book which argued for more British influence in Egypt 1892. Became a member of the Privy Council in 1901. Trustee of Rhodes' final will. Became a viscount in 1902. High commissioner for South Africa and governor-general of Cape Colony from 1897-1905. Supervised the destruction of Dutch settlers what led to the Boer war 1899-1902. Secretary of War under David Lloyd George 1916-1918. Worked together with the Warburgs, Schiffs, Rothschilds and other persons to foment the Russian revolution. Colonial Secretary 1919-1921. Led a commission to Egypt that recommended Egyptian independence in 1920. Terence O'Brien's biography, 'Milner', p. 97, "Milner went to Paris on some business with Alhponse de Rothschild... Business calls in the City included a formal visit to Rothschilds... weekend with Lord Rothschild at Tring, and visit with Edward Cecil, Lord Salisbury at Hatfield... while spending a weekend with Lord Rothschild at Tring a Press Lord gave him a sleepless night [no further explanation given]... talks with Rothschild. Milner attended a Zionist dinner given by Lord Rothschild, sitting next to Lawrence of Arabia, who interpreted for him in a talk with King Feisal." On p. 364, O'Brien notes, "Milner lost no time in recreating his links with the City. He went first to Rio Tinto which reelected him to its Board and before long Rothschild asked him to be its chairman." Chairman of Rio Tinto Zinc 1921-1925. Became a Knight of the Garter in 1921. The Round Table Group was unofficially named the Milner Group after Cecil Rhodes died.

Moore, George Stevens
Yale, joined Farmers Loan and Trust Co. in 1927, which became First National City Bank of New York, which became Citibank, retired as chairman from Citibank in 1967, president New York Metropolitan Opera Association in 1967, author of "The Banker's Life" (1987). In 1987 he was the chairman of Gibraltar Trust Bank Ltd. and director at Credit Suisse White Weld, Union Pacific Railroad, U.S. Steel, W.R. Grace and Mercantile Stores.

Moore, Charles Garrett Ponsonby
Son of a Privy Councilor. 11th Earl of Drogheda, descendant of the Earl of Drogheda, who was Queen Victoria’s private secretary for a quarter of a century. Married Paul Mellon’s stepdaughter Eliza, managing director Financial Times 1946-1971, chairman Financial Times 1971-1974.

Morgan, John Pierpont
Pierpont and Morgan were/are both wealthy elite Anglo-American families and have intermarried (before and after J.P. Morgan) with the Spencers, Grosvenors, Barings, Gascoignes, Harcourts, Adams, and others. Son of the London-based Junius Spencer Morgan, who, by 1854, became a London agent of George Peabody (Junius was also the favorite banker of Andrew Carnegie in London). Peabody is said to have been an agent of the London Rothschild family. In 1857 the Bank of England gave a loan to George Peabody & Co. and saved it, while 9000 other companies went down in a large financial crash. With this money Peabody bought up large amounts of dirt cheap securities and sold them at a later stage with enormous profits. In 1864, as Peabody retires, George Peabody & Company is renamed to Junius S. Morgan Company and Junius supposedly becomes a direct Rothschild agent. John P. was educated at the English high-school in Boston, and studied for 2 years at the University of Goettingen in mathematics. He returned to the United States in 1857, and entered the banking-firm of Duncan, Sherman and Co. of New York. In 1860 he became an agent and attorney in the United States for George Peabody and Co. of London, a relation he has since held with that firm and its successor. He became the junior partner of the banking-firm of Dabney, Morgan and Co. in 1864, and that of Drexel, Morgan and Co. in 1871 (both under the control of their London counterpart). This house is among the chief negotiators of railroad bonds, and was active in the reorganization of the West Shore railroad and its absorption by the New York Central railroad. Morgan build a huge industrial empire, which could stabilize and destabilize the entire market. He was the first person to issue loans to the American Government, instead of the British, and by 1901 he had bailed out the American government 3 times. No other American businessman has ever come close to the influence of J.P. Morgan. A description of the interests of J.P. Morgan in 1901: "Besides his own private banking house here and its branches abroad, Mr. Morgan largely controls a powerful national bank in New York City-the National Bank of Commerce, of which he is the vice-president. It is known in Wall Street as "Morgan's Bank." He is a dominating influence in other banks and financial institutions, and a director never without much influence in twenty-one railroad companies, great and small, including the New York Central and Lake Shore systems. He is a director in the Western Union Telegraph Company, the Pullman Palace Car Company, the Etna Fire Insurance Company, the General Electric Company, the greatest electric company in the world, and in other less important corporations. And through his partners, who are directors in other railroad and steel corporations, his influence reaches far and wide. He is a potent, and in times of trouble the controlling, factor in several of what are known as the "coal roads" of Pennsylvania-the Erie, the Lehigh Valley, the Central of New Jersey, and the Reading, together with their tributary coal fields. He is the predominating influence in the Southern Railway and in three of its connections, the foremost railroad system of the Southern States, with over eight thousand miles of track, a system which he has created, and of which an associate and is president. He is also a power in many other railroads, as witness his recent appointment of the directors of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and his evident influence through J. J. Hill in the Burlington and Great Northern management. And, as I have already said, he is at present practically dictator of the vast steel interests of the country, through the United States Steel Corporation, and he controls at least one Atlantic steamship line." Pilgrims Society member George Fisher Baker, chairman of Manhattan's First National Bank and director of at least 50 other companies, was one of Morgan's closest allies. He wanted Baker on the board of every important company he financed. When Morgan died in 1913, he left a fortune of $69.5 million fortune, which was far smaller than that of Henry Frick, E. H. Harriman, Andrew Mellon and even smaller than those of Thomas Fortune Ryan and Payne Whitney. And Morgan's money was as nothing compared with that of the DuPonts, John D. Rockefeller, or at one point, Andrew Carnegie. Though his name was known all over the world, he never made a speech or attended a public meeting. He never granted interviews to reporters, and he dodged photographers. When Harvard, to whom he had been so generous, wanted to give him an honorary degree, he declined the honor, knowing that receiving it would involve an acceptance speech and dealing with the press. Publishers offered him huge sums for his autobiography, but he turned them all down and refused to authorize any book to be written about him in his lifetime. Even his son-in-law, Herbert Satterlee, was unsuccessful in trying to persuade him to be interviewed on the subjects of his life and business philosophy for posthumous publication. Member of the elite Pilgrims Society and the smaller, but even more elite, Roxburghe Club. Founding member of the 12 to 13 member Corsair Club, which included William Rockefeller and Pilgrims Society members Joseph H. Choate and Chauncey Mitchel Depew among its members.

Morgan, John Pierpont, Jr.
American banker and financier, the head of the Morgan investment banking house after the death of his father. Graduated from Harvard University in 1889. Became a member of his father's banking firm, J.P. Morgan and Company, in 1892, working in the firm's London branch for eight years. After that he went to New York. The Morgans had used their banks to gain control of a huge empire of industries, railroads, and insurance companies. They financed corporate mergers and in return gained major roles in the merged companies. One of the most important companies they controlled was U.S. Steel. J.P. Morgan was one of the main financiers of The American Liberty League, the main institute behind the 1934 fascist plot against FDR. His sons and grandsons were far less impressive bankers and by 1960 the Morgan presence in the family firms had ended completely. His sons Junius and Henri were OSS executives working for Wild Bill Donovan. Member of the elite Pilgrims Society and the smaller, but even more elite, Roxburghe Club. Member of the 12 to 13 member Corsair Club, founded by his father, which included William Rockefeller and Pilgrims Society members Joseph H. Choate and Chauncey Mitchel Depew among its members.

Morgan, Henry "Harry" Sturgis
Sources: January 24, 1973, Pilgrims Society, Proceedings Annual Meeting of Member (from the University of Wisconsin Library)
Born in 1900. A son of J.P. Morgan, Jr. Attended the Groton School, of which he became a trustee, and graduated from Harvard in 1923, the year he entered J. P. Morgan & Company. Married Catherine Adams in 1923, a daughter of the Secretary of the Navy, Charles Francis Adams, and a descendant of Presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams. (Charles Francis Adams IV (1910-1999) of the Pilgrims Society was a long time chair of the Raytheon Corporation, founded by Vannevar Bush). Trustee of the Morgan Library since 1924. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations since at least 1928. Partner in J. P. Morgan & Company 1929-1935. Trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 1930-1946. Co-founder of Morgan Stanley, an investment bank, in 1935, together with Harold Stanley of J. P. Morgan & Co., after this firm and other financial enterprises were required under the Banking Act of 1933 to choose between their deposit-banking and their investment businesses. Elected a director of the General Electric Company in 1934, and would be affiliated with this firm until his death. Member of the board of overseers of Harvard University since 1935. Worked for the OSS with his brother Junius (member of the CFR since at least 1950) during WWII. Vice president of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the 1940s. Again trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art since 1954. Chairman of the Community Service Society, which was formed in 1939 with the merger of the New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, of which he was an officer, and the Charity Organization Society. Became president of the Morgan Library in 1960, succeeding his brother, Junius Spencer Morgan, who had died that year and with whom he had shared the bulk of the fortune that J. P. Morgan left at his death in 1943. As an officer and commodore of the New York Yacht Club, he helped organize America's Cup races and played a role in the adoption of worldwide, uniform racing rules. Owned two racing sloops, both named Djinn, with which he won regattas on Long Island Sound and in the Atlantic. Visitor of Bohemian Grove camp Stowaway, like the Rockefellers, in the 1960s and 1970s, where he brought his son Charles F. Morgan along. Member of the executive board of the elite Pilgrims Society in the 1970s. At the time of his death, he was an advisory partner at Morgan Stanley, a director emeritus of the General Electric Company and board chairman of the Pierpont Morgan Library, which was founded by his father as a research center in 1924. Member of the elite Roxburghe Club. Died in 1982.

Morgan, William Fellowes
Scientific interests, alumnus and trustee Columbia University, New York cold storage tycoon, president National Society for the Prevention of Blindness in 1926 (S&B, Pilgrim William H. Taft is the honorary president), trustee Wells College for 26 years, chairman Wells College 1927-1940.

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr.
Studied architecture and agriculture for two years at Cornell University. Neighbor and friend of FDR. Appointed chairman New York State Agricultural Advisory Commission in 1929. Appointed State Commissioner of Conservation in 1930 and directed a million-acre reforestation program. Appointed to the Taconic State Park Commission. Appointed chairman of the Federal Farm Board and Governor of the Farm Credit Administration in 1933. Advisor to FDR. U.S. Secretary of the Treasury 1934-1945. In 1944, he proposed the Morgenthau plan, under which post-war Germany would be stripped of its industry and converted into an agricultural nation. At the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, Morgenthau assumed a leading role in establishing post-war economic policies and currency stabilization. In July 1945, three months after the death of President Roosevelt, Morgenthau resigned as Secretary, but remained in office until President Truman's return from the "Big Three" conference in Berlin. From 1947 until 1950, he was Chairman of the United Jewish Appeal, which raised $465 million during that time, and from 1951 to 1954, he served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the American Financial and Development Corporation for Israel, which handled a $500 million bond issue for the new nation.

Morrow, Dwight Whitney
Member of Simpson, Thatcher& Bartlett. Worked at J.P. Morgan & Company 1914-1927. Awarded the Distinguished Service Medal by General Pershing in 1919. Ambassador to Mexico 1927-1930. Delegate to the London Naval Conference 1930. U.S. Senator 1930-1931. Regent of the Smithsonian Institution. Trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Amherst College, Union Theological Seminary, Russell Sage Foundation and the Commonwealth Fund, the latter having been set up by the Harkness family of Pilgrims Society and the Standard Oil fortune.

Morton, Levi Parsons
Calvinist indoctrinated, quite poor, entered the banking business during the Civil War (1861-1865) and became a prominent New York City banker. His company, through its London branch (Rothschild agent Junius S. Morgan sent him clients), was the financial agent of the U.S. government from 1873 to 1884. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from New York in 1879, driven the ceremonial first rivet into the Statue of Liberty when construction of the monument began in France in 1881, minister to France 1881-1885, Republican vice-president of the United States under Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893, governor of New York 1895-1896.

Morton, William H.
Dartmouth College graduate 1932, helped out with Darthmouth Medical School's financial trouble, Secretary of the Interior, president American Express Co., director of Crocker Bank (merged into London Midland Bank).

Norman, Lord Montagu Collett
The only man in history who had both of his grandfathers serve as Governors of the Bank of England. His father was with Brown, Shipley Company, the London Branch of Brown Brothers, . Norman was named to the Court of the Bank of England in 1907, had a nervous breakdown in 1912, and was treated by Carl Jung in Switzerland. Governor Bank of England 1916-1944. Participated in the secret meeting (or meetings) between him, Hjalmar Schacht (Reichsbank) and Benjamin Strong (Federal Reserve) in July 1927. Close friends to both of these men. Leading figure in establishing the Swiss Bank for International Settlements in 1931, involved with abandoning the gold standard in the United Kingdom in 1931. Wall Street Journal, Feb 8, 1927: "Mr. M.Collet Norman, the Governor of the Bank of England, is now head and shoulders above all other British bankers. No other British banker has ever been a sindependent and supreme in the world of British finance as Mr. Norman is today. He has just been elected Governor for the eighth year in succession. Before the war, no Governor was allowed to hold office for more than two years; but Mr. Norman has broken all precedents. He runs his Bank and his Treasury as well. He appears to have no associations except his employees. He gives no interviews. He leaves the British financial world wholly in the thick as to his plans and ideas."

Northcliffe, Lord Alfred Harmsworth
Purchased the Evening News 1894, founded the Daily Mail 1896, warned for the first time that a future war with Germany was possible, editor New York World in 1900, founded The Daily Mirror 1903, baronet in 1904 after turning down an offer of knighthood, obtained the Sunday Observer 1905, purchased The Times 1908, in 1909 he employed a journalist to visit Germany and to write a series of articles on the dangers that the Germans posed to Britain, constantly attacked the government and Lord Kitchener (Freemasonry grand master), finally agreed to join the cabinet and take charge of all propaganda directed at enemy countries, called for Kaiser Wilhelm to be hanged and the imposition of severe financial penalties on Germany, during WWI.

Ochs, Adolph Simon
Starting as a newsboy in Knoxville, Tenn., he became a printer's apprentice, compositor, and in 1878, publisher of the Chattanooga Times. In 1896, he acquired the then failing New York Times and made it one of the greatest newspapers in the world. To do that he had to borrow $100,000 from Marcellus Hartley in 1896, and needed to borrow additional funds in 1905. Hartley married Geraldine Rockefeller in 1907, daughter of William D. Rockefeller, who in his turn was the brother of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. Ochs became the sole owner of Remington Arms. married He also controlled the Philadelphia Times and the Philadelphia Public Ledger, which he merged and in 1913 sold to Cyrus H. K. Curtis. From 1900 until his death he was a member of the executive committee and a director of the Associated Press.

O’Conner, Sandra Day
Grew up on her family's 198,000 acre cattle ranch, graduated from Stanford Law School 1952, Arizona assistant attorney general 1965-1969, senator from Arizona 1969-1974, trial judge 1974-1979, Arizona Court of Appeals 1979-1981, first woman Supreme Court Justice in 1981. Retired as Justice in 2005. Her husband is a visitor of the Bohemian Grove and stayed in the Pelicans camp.

Odlum, Floyd Bostwick
Law school, assistant librarian, husband of aviatrix Jackie Cochran, founder and chairman Atlas Corporation 1923-1960, chairman Federal Resources Corporation 1961-1969, owner and chairman RKO Radio Pictures 1937-1948, chairman Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation 1947-1953, owner Hidden Splendor (Uranium) Mining Company before 1955, director Office of Production Management 1941-1942, special adviser to the chairman of the War Production Board 1943-44, special adviser to the chairman of the Office of Price Administration 1940-44, owner Convair, Bonwit Taylor & Northeast Airlines, founder and chairman Arthritis and Rheumatism Foundation, president Hertz Foundation, trustee Lovelace Foundation, among the 10 richest men in the United States (and the world) in 1932 (billionaire). His Atlas Corporation purchased Paramount Pictures in 1933 at "basement" prices. Odlum was also chairman of RKO Studios, another filmmaker. Atlas Corporation was once known as Atlas Utilities & Investors Company. Odlum was also a heavy owner, through his Atlas Corporation, of Greyhound Bus Lines; Northeast Airlines (nearly 90%); Bonwit Teller (department stores); Convair Aviation; United Fruit Company; and Madison Square Garden. In 1937 it was said that Atlas Corporation was probably the biggest investment trust in the world.

Olin, John Merrill
Graduated from Cornell University with a B.S. in chemistry, chemical engineer for the Western Cartridge Company (became Olin Industries, Inc.) since 1913, became President of Olin Industries in 1944, upon the merger of the company with Mathieson Chemical Corporation in 1954 he became the new chairman, established the John M. Olin Foundation in 1952, inventor or co-inventor of 24 United States patents in the field of arms and ammunition manufacture and design and was responsible for numerous developments in ballistics, breeder of saddle and race horses as well as a trainer and breeder of champion Labrador retrievers, widely recognized as one of the country's most active conservationists and led the effort to save the Atlantic salmon. Mr. Olin was a Trustee Emeritus of Cornell University and of Johns Hopkins University, a Life Trustee of Washington University, St. Louis, and an Honorary Director of The American Museum of Natural History. He was named the Charles F. Kettering Award recipient for 1968 by the George Washington University PTC Research Institute. He received the Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur of France and the Grand Ufficiale-Ordine al Merito della Republica Italiana.

O'Ryan, John F.
Enlisted in the army as a Private in 1897, became Major General in 1912, appointed by President Wilson as Major General of the National Army in 1917, Knight Commander, Order of St. Michael and St. George, Royal Victorian Order, Legion of Honor, and a few other rewards.

Otis, Norton
Founder Otis Elevator

Page, Walter Hines
Educated at Trinity College (now Duke), Randolph-Macon College, and Johns Hopkins University studying Greek classics, editor of the St. Joseph Gazette, the Forum and Atlantic Monthly, partner in the publishing firm of Doubleday Page & Company (publisher), wrote “The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths” (1902), founded and edited the "World's Work" up to 1913, ambassador to Great Britain during World War I, urging an early United States intervention which improved the ties between the US and England (although Wilson didn't approve).

Page, Walter Hines II
Grandson of Walter Hines Page, director Kennecott Copper, director AT&T, director Merck & Company, vice-president, president, vice-chairman & chairman at J.P. Morgan & Company (retired in 1979), president, chairman & trustee Long Island Biological Association, director or trustee of the Foreign Policy Association, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory & New York Urban Coalition, trustee Carnegie Institution of Washington (1971-1979), member Council on Foreign Relations.

Paley, William S.
Graduated from Western Military Academy in 1918, studied at the University of Chicago 1918-1919, University of Pennsylvania B.S. in 1922, served as colonel of the United States Army during WWII, deputy chief of the psychological warfare division of SHAPE (NATO), deputy chief of information control division of U.S. Group Control Council, Germany (USGCC), vice-president Congress Cigar Company 1922-1928, every executive position possible at CBS Inc.1928-1990, partner Whitcom Investment Company 1982-90, founder and director Genetics Institute 1980-1990, Thinking Machines Corp. 1983-1990, co-chair International Herald Tribune 1983-1990, president and director William S. Paley Foundation and the Greenpark Foundation, Inc., life trustee Columbia University 1950-1990, chairman and trustee North Shore University Hospital 1949-1973, life trustee Federation Jewish Philanthropies of New York, director W. Averill Harriman Institute for Advanced Study of Soviet Union at Columbia University, member Commission for White House Conference on Education 1954-1956, chairman President's Materials for Policy Commission, which produced "Resources for Freedom" 1951-1952, director, chairman and honorary member Resources for the Future 1952-1969, chairman New York City Task Force on Urban Design, which prepared "The Threatened City" report in 1967, member Urban Design Council City New York 1968-1971, co-founder and director Bedford-Stuyvesant D and S Corp. 1967-1972, member Commission on Critical Choices for America 1973-1977, member Council on Foreign Relations, member Academy of Political Sciences, member National Institute for Social Sciences, member Royal Society of the Arts. Paley seems to have been involved with the British Crown's Tavistock Institute.

Parker, Sir Gilbert
Canadian novelist, born in Ontario. His novels and collections of tales usually deal either with the history of Canada or with England and the empire. Among his works are Pierre and His People (1892), The Seats of the Mighty (1896), and The Promised Land (1928). He moved to England in 1889 and from 1900 to 1918 served in Parliament.

Parry, Sir Emyr Jones
Joined Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1973. Second later First Secretary (Political) later First Secretary (Economic), Ottawa in 1974. Worked on EU affairs in Foreign and Commonwealth Office and in the UK Representation to the EU in Brussels 1979-1984. Deputy Chef du Cabinet, President of the European Parliament 1987-1989. Head of European Community Department External, Foreign and Commonwealth Office 1989-1993. Minister and Deputy Head of Mission, Madrid 1993-1996. Deputy Political Director foremostly, responsible also for Balkans and Aegean policy 1996-1997. Director European Union responsible for policy, including co-ordination and organisation of the 1998 UK Presidency of the EU 1997-1998. Political Director of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office responsible for policy advice to the Secretary of State 1998-2001. UK Permanent Representative on the North Atlantic Council 2001-2003. Permanent Representative, UK Mission to the UN, New York since 2003.

Parsons, Sir Maurice Henry
Joined the Bank of England in 1928, private secretary to Governor Montagu Norman at the Bank of England 1939-1943, U.K. executive director IMF 1946-1947, Director of Operations IMF 1947-1950, deputy chief cashier Bank of England 1950-1955, assistant to the governors of the Bank of England 1955-1957, executive director Bank of England 1957-1966, deputy governor Bank of England 1966-1970, knighted in 1966.

Pattberg, Emil J., Jr.
Chairman First Boston Corporation (Has been rated as the world’s leading investment banking operation).

Patterson, Ellmore Clark
Married Ann Hyde Choate of the Pilgrim Hyde & Choate families, WWII navy, joined J.P. Morgan & Company in 1935, finally became chairman J.P. Morgan & Company 1971-1978, trustee Massachusetts Institute of Technology, life trustee University of Chicago, director Morgan Bank of Canada, Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, Schlumberger Limited (rival to Halliburton), Standard Brands Bethlehem Steel, International Nickel Co., Atlantic Richfield Oil Co., Nabisco Brands Inc., General Motors and Canada Life Assurance, member Presidential Commission on Financial Structure and Regulation 1970-1972, member Council on Foreign Relations, involved with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, treasurer and trustee Sloan-Kettering for Cancer Research around 1956 (together with Laurence Rockefeller, George Whitney and other heavy-hitters), member Investment Committee of the Committee on Scientific Policy around 1956 (together with Laurence Rockefeller).

Patterson, Richard Cunningham Jr.
Served in the army during WWI, started with the Du Ponts in 1921, delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York in 1928, joined National Broadcasting in 1932, chaired RKO Corporation 1939-1943, ambassador to Yugoslavia 1944-1947, Guatemala 1948-1951, Switzerland 1951-1953, director New Hampshire & Hudson Railroad, John C. Paige Incorporated Insurance Brokers, Hilton Hotels International, Empire State Building Corporation, General Dynamics, Burrus Mills, American Export Lines, Hidden Splendor Mining Company, Mercast Corporation, and Wah-Chang Smelting & Refining Company, director and first president of the China-America Council of Commerce & Industry. Patterson chaired the Military Intelligence Reserve Society in 1930 and received the Order of the Jade (China), in addition to many other international awards. He also chaired the United Nations Committee for the City of New York.

Peabody, Charles A.
Possibly of the same family branch as the infamous George Peabody (1795-1869), who is said to have been a Rothschild agent, was the founder of modern philanthropy, was responsible for the rise of the Morgans, and was very highly respected by the British (received a temporary burial in Westminster Abbey and his body was shipped back to the US on the 'Monarch', the newest and largest ship in Her Majesty's Navy). Partner Fisher Ames Baker was counsel to the First National Bank and the uncle of its President, George Fisher Baker. "It was said at the time Mr. Peabody left law for insurance, that the change was, at least in part, due to the influence of the elder Baker in the councils of the Mutual." From 1893, he was trustee of the estate of the first John Jacob Astor, and was associated with William Waldorf Astor and represented him in this country. At his death, he was on the boards of directors of City Bank Farmers Trust Company, Mutual Life Insurance Company, Oregon Short Line Railroad, Central of Georgia Railway, Illinois Central Railroad and Union Pacific Railroad, and was a trustee of the Church Pension Fund and member of the board of managers of Delaware & Hudson Company. Identified as a member of the Pilgrims Society in 1903. President of the Mutual Life Insurance Company from 1906 until retiring in 1927.

Peabody, Richard A.
Possibly of the same family branch as the infamous George Peabody (1795-1869), who is said to have been a Rothschild agent, was the founder of modern philanthropy, was responsible for the rise of the Morgans, and was very highly respected by the British (received a temporary burial in Westminster Abbey and his body was shipped back to the US on the 'Monarch', the newest and largest ship in Her Majesty's Navy). Richard attended the first annual dinner of the New-York City Club of Yale College in 1886. Was recruited into the English branch of the Pilgrims in 1903. Died early in 1910 and his wife, Mary Chester Miller, survived him by 40 years. In 1921 Mrs. Richard A. Peabody, as she was usually addressed, set up a French Shop in New York with Mrs. Robert Grosvenor. Richard Peabody's grandson, Lieutenant Matthew Looram, Jr. (born 1921), married the daugther of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild of Vienna, Bettina de Rothschild, on September 18, 1943. Looram, Jr. served in the U.S. Army during World War II, was U.S. Consul in Asmara 1959-1962, U.S. Ambassador to Dahomey 1969-1971, and U.S. Ambassador to Somalia 1972-1973.

Peale, Norman Vincent
Famous Protestant clergyman, pastor of Marble Collegiate Church for 52 years, Freemason and member of the Midwood Lodge No. 1062 (NY), wrote one of the best-selling books of the 1950s, "applied Christianity", authored 45 other books (mainly about positive thinking) that still sell today, published the inspirational magazine 'Guideposts', controlled the megamillion dollar Presbyterian Ministers Fund.

Penrose, Charles
born 1886
Protestant Episcopalian, founded the Pennsylvania Board of Health, president Philadelphia zoo, co-founder and chairman Newcomen Society, member English Speaking Union. Penrose Sr. and Penrose Jr. have presided over the Newcomen Society for 65 years since it's founding in 1923.

Penrose, Charles, Jr.
born 1921
Inheritor of a cotton, engineering, mining and power production fortune, chairman Newcomen Society (The logo is a lion with the wings of an eagle, again indicating Britain and the US), member English-Speaking Union. Penrose Sr. and Penrose Jr. have presided over the Newcomen Society for 65 years since it's founding in 1923.

Perry, James De Wolf
In 1930, Reverend Perry became head of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, which made him the American counterpart to the Archbishop of Canterbury (also a member). Appeared as vice-president on the 1942 membership list.

Perryman, Francis Spencer
Born December 3, 1896 in London, England, he was educated at Christ’s College, London and London University from which he received a B.Sc. degree. He entered the employ of the Royal Insurance Company in London in 1914. After serving as a Lieutenant in the British Army from 1915 to 1919, he resumed his career with the Royal Insurance Company and in 1922 became a Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries. He came to the United States in 1924 as Assistant Actuary of the casualty companies of the Royal-Globe Insurance Companies and later was elected Vice President and Actuary of those companies. In 1949 he became Assistant United States Manager, Vice President and Actuary of all of the com- panies of the Royal-Globe Insurance Companies operating in the United States. Mr. Perryman’s professional attainments were of the highest order. In addition to his Fellowship in the Institute of Actuaries, he was a Fellow and past President of the Casualty Actuarial Society and an Associate of the Society of Actuaries. He was also a member of the American Statistical Association, the Mathematical Association of America, and the American Mathematical Society. At the time of his death he was Vice-Chairman of the ASTIN Section of the International Congress of Actuaries. One of the things which is least known is that Mr. Perryman was an avid student of religion as well as mathematics. He was a member of the Church Club of New York, the St. George’s Society and the Pilgrims of the United States. He was formerly the efficient Treasurer and dedicated Church Warden of the Church of Saint James the Less in Scarsdale, New York. His ability and personality made him one of the most influential persons in the actuarial development of fire and casualty insurance in the US from the 1920's to the 1950's.

Peterson, Peter George
b. 1926
Born in 1926. MBA from University of Chicago 1951. Joined the McCann-Erickson advertising agency (now the Interpublic Group of Companies) in 1952 and was general manager of its Chicago office until 1958. Then joined the Bell & Howell Corporation. Chairman and CEO of the Bell and Howell Corporation 1963-1971. Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs 1971-1972. Secretary of Commerce 1972-1973. Felix Rohatyn, the Lazard Banker and follow-up of André Meyer, handled the investments of Peterson in a blind trust while Peterson was Secretary of Commerce. Became chairman of President Nixon’s National Commission on Productivity in 1972. Became U.S. Chairman of the U.S.–Soviet Commercial Commission in 1972, which negotiated comprehensive trade, Ex-Im credit, arbitration, copyright and lend-lease agreements. Chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers 1973-1977. Director Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) 1973-1981. Attended the first meeting of the Trilateral Commission in 1973, and continued to attend while being head of Lehman Brothers. Member of the 1976 Iran-US Business Council meeting, which was set up by Henry Kissinger and Hushang Ansary, and included David Rockefeller and Paul Volcker. Chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers, Kuhn, Loeb 1977-1984. Founding chairman of the Institute for International Economics (IIE), from 1981 until today. Past and present directors of the IIE have included George Shultz (Pilgrims), Paul Volcker (Pilgrims; Le Cercle), David O'Reilly (Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay), Maurice R. Greenberg, and David Rockefeller (Pilgrims; Le Cercle). Treasurer of the CFR 1981-1985. Chairman of the CFR 1985-present. In his memoirs, David Rockefeller, the previous chairman of the CFR, wrote about Peterson on page 409: "Pete has introduced a number of innovations that have strengthened the Council. One of his initiatives, in which I participate, are periodic Council trips overseas... Our visits to Israel in 1999 and Cuba in 2000 were typical. We drove from Jerusalem to the Gaza Strip for a luncheon meeting with Yasser Arafat... a small, canny, and charming man obviously suffering from Parkinson's desease. He insisted that Israel must withdraw from the West Bank and allow its incorporation into a fully souvereign Palestinian state... Returning to Jerusalem we met Prime Minister Ehud Barak, a self-confident, assertive man who explained why Israel would never agree to Arafat's demands to return to the 1967 borders." Peterson and Rockefeller have also organized meetings with the Chinese leadership in the United States under the George W. Bush Administration. One of two founders of The Blackstone Group in 1985, headquartered in New York. Blackstone, a leading global investment and advisory group, has a strategic partnership with Kissinger Associates (of Pilgrims Society and Le Cercle member Henry Kissinger) and AIG. AIG has an ownership interest in Blackstone. In 2000, Henry Kissinger was quoted by Business Wire: "Hank Greenberg, Pete Peterson and I have been close friends and business associates for decades." 2001, Uri Dowbenko interview with Al Martin, 'The Man Who Knows Too Much': "They're [Blackstone] an asset of the agency [CIA]. They're not a cut-out. They're just one of the legion of financial companies, mostly domiciled in Washington or northern Virginia, which the CIA turns to, on occasion, to launder money, or for some other illegal purpose... They had been involved with their Blackstone Investment Group, and they have other partners, originally Assistant Deputy Secretary of Defense Richard Stilwell [CIA; DIA; special forces general who fought the communists worldwide; worked for J. Peter Grace and the Rockefellers in South-America; Le Cercle; named as a member of SMOM; named as a key player in the Far-East heroine trade and the European Stay-Behind networks; co-authored Operation Mongoose and Northwoods], the son of the famous General Stilwell. Stilwell himself was a retired Major General. Stilwell was also very close to Armitage [former Seal; named as a key player in the Far-East heroine trade], Carlucci [implicated in CIA-sponsored coups in Congo. Brazil, and Portugal], and Pete Peterson... The Carlyle Group, which is Frank Carlucci, and the Blackstone Investment Group are virtually one and the same. Two different names, but they are virtually the same organization. All they do is ride the crest of the waves of various frauds from country to country." The Blackstone Group was a top Enron financial advisor. October 17, 2000, The Blackstone Group news announcement, 'Blackstone Acquires Debt on 7 World Trade Center': "Blackstone Real Estate Advisors, the global real estate investment and management arm of The Blackstone Group, L.P., announced today that it has purchased, from Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association, the participating mortgage secured by 7 World Trade Center, a commercial office complex controlled by real estate developer Larry Silverstein... We are pleased to be a lender to Larry Silverstein, a seasoned real estate veteran, on one of Manhattan’s trophy properties..." 7 World Trade Center came down on 9/11, late in the afternoon, under what many have called suspiscious circumstances. Coincidentally, for some reason Silverstein later claimed he and the fire department decided to "pull" the building, after which "they watched it collapse." Many believe Silverstein literally meant "demolish." Director of the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation, together with four former U.S. presidents, Maurice R. Greenberg, Henry R. Kravis (Bohemian Grove), David Rockefeller, Jerry I. Speyer (big Rockefeller guy), John C. Whitehead (photographed standing behind Lord Rothschild and Kissinger; likely Pilgrim), Anne M. Tatlock (gone from her WTC on the morning on 9/11), Sir John Bond (HSBC; Multinational Chairman's Group), Michael Eisner (Sun Valley Meetings), and Richard D. Parsons (Rockefeller guy; Sun Valley Meetings). Founding president of the Concord Coalition in 1992, an "organization advocating fiscal responsibility while ensuring Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid are secure for all generations." Co-Chair of the Conference Board Commission on Public Trust and Private Enterprises. Class C director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1996-1998. Deputy chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1998-2000. Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York from 2000 to 2004, where he succeeded co-Pilgrims Society member John C. Whitehead. Director of Rockefeller Center Properties. Social and business friend of David Rockefeller. Director of Sony Corporation, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, Federated Department Stores, Black & Decker Manufacturing Company, General Foods Corporation, RCA, The Continental Group, and Cities Service. Trustee of the Committee for Economic Development, the Japan Society and the Rockefeller's Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Director of the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Public Agenda Foundation and The Nixon Center. Financial contributor to the Asia Society. April 21, 2005, New York Daily News, Daily Dish & Gossip, 'Lloyd Grove's Lowdown: Celeb rep snaps at his kind': "Nuff said: All you busybodies who've been ringing up financial whiz Pete Peterson to chide him for rudely walking out on former United Nations Ambassador Richard Holbrooke's talk to the posh Pilgrims Club in response to Lowdown's item the other day: Please stop it, won't you? Let's review: Peterson and Holbrooke are old friends who think it's funny to insult each other. Plus, Holbrooke's presentation was running long and Peterson had an appointment."

Phelps-Shokes, James Graham
Yale, not Skull & Bones but many Phelps and Phelps-Stokes were, honorary councillor of the Russian Information Bureau in the United States 1917-1922, owned Austin Mining, Manhattan Silver Mine, Ione Gold Mining, Nevada Central Railroad, Nevada Motor Lines, The Nevada Company and State Bank of Nevada, president of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society 1907-1918, member of the China Society of America, Royal India and Pakistan Society, Oriental Institute of University of Chicago, American Oriental Society, American Legion, Sons of the Revolution, Society of Colonial Wars and others. Member of the New York Governor’s Committee in 1921 to welcome to New York representatives of European countries to attend the International Conference on Limitation of Armaments, a forerunner of the S.A.L.T. talks. (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)

Phillips, Lord Nicholas Addison
Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers. Phillips was educated at Bryanston School; he enjoyed his time at the school and from 1975 he became a Governor of the School; he has been Chairman of the Governors since 1981. He undertook his National Service with the Royal Navy and the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve where he was a commissioned officer; after the two years service he went up to King's College, Cambridge where he read Law. In 1962 he was called to the bar (Middle Temple) where he was the Harmsworth Scholar. He went into practise as a barrister, specialising in maritime law matters; in 1973 he was appointed as Junior Counsel to the Ministry of Defence and to the Treasury in maritime and Admiralty matters; in 1978 he 'took silk' and became a Queen's Counsel. In 1982 Phillips was appointed as a Recorder (junior Judge) and from 1987 was a full time Judge on the Queen's Bench Division, with the customary Knighthood. He took an interest in legal training, and was Chairman of the Council of Legal Education from 1992 to 1997. He presided over several complex fraud trials including those covering the Robert Maxwell pension fund fraud and Barlow Clowes. In 1995 he became a Lord Justice of Appeal and was appointed to the Privy Council. In early 1999 he was made a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and in 2000 succeeded Lord Woolf as Master of the Rolls. Chairman of the BSE inquiry 1998-2000.

Phipps, Henry
Son of an immigrant cobbler. Grew up with and befriended Andrew Carnegie. Finally intermarried with the Carnegie family. Partner in Bidwell & Phipps (agents for Dupont Powder Company) 1861. Second largest stockholder of Carnegie Steel Company (financed by British investors; became U.S. Steel after it was bought by J.P. Morgan). Director U.S. Steel Corporation. Founded the Phipps Houses Group in 1905. Controlled Bessemer Securities Corporation. Interests connected to Dillon Read & Company.

Polk, Frank L.
Yale Scroll & Key 1894, partner Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardner & Read Law firm, Secretary of State, Counsellor of the Department of State, negotiator during and surrounding WWI with high level British and American officials (co-Pilgrims), present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference, director Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1943, vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1940-1943, director Northern Pacific Railway Co. since 1938, director Bowery Savings Bank and Mutual Life Ins. Co. since 1939, director U.S. Trust Co. in 1939, member advisory committee of the Institute of Human Relations, contributed over $140,000 at death to the CFR.

Potter, Henry Codman
United States Protestant Episcopal bishop.

Preston, Lewis Thompson
Married Gladys Pulitzer in 1959, of the Pulitzer newspaper publishing fortune, director General Electric, trustee Foxcroft School, chairman of J.P. Morgan & Company 1980-1990, president World Bank 1991-1995, member Council on Foreign Relations. In the 1981 Who’s Who he admitted his membership in The Pilgrims, but in the 1994 edition he went underground about it. (According to Charles Savoie)

Price, Charles H., II
Born in 1931, Charles Price attended Wentworth Military Academy and the University of Missouri (1948-1953). He served with the United States Air Force from 1953-1955. After his discharge, he began a prominent business career serving as chairman and president of American Bancorporation Inc., chairman and CEO of the American Bank and Trust Company of Kansas City, chairman and president of Linwood Securities Company, and chairman and CEO of Price Candy Company from 1969-1981. US Ambassador to Belgium 1981-1983. U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1983-1989. Upon his return from London, in April 1989, Ambassador Price was appointed Chairman of the Board of Ameribanc, Inc., and President and CEO in 1990. With the merger of Ameribanc, Inc. and Mercantile Bancorporation, Inc. in May 1992, he became Chairman of the Board of Mercantile Bank of Kansas City and Mercantile Bank of Kansas, a position he held until his retirement on April 1, 1996. Since leaving government service, he has been appointed to be a Director of British Airways p.l.c. (1989-1996), Hanson p.l.c. (1989-1995), US Industries, Inc. (1995-present), The New York Times Company (1989-2002), Texaco Inc. (1989-2001), Sprint (1989-1995), and 360o Communications, Inc. (1995-1997). His civic Boards in Kansas City include membership on the Board of Trustees of the Midwest Research Institute, formerly serving as the Board Chairman. He is an Honorary Director of St. Luke’s Hospital.

Putney III, William Beaumont
Grandson of an influential banker, Vanderbilt associated law firm, director Genesee & Wyoming Railroad, director Yamaichi Securities (Japanese).

Pyne, Percy Rivington II
born 1882
Inherited a fortune, interests in National City Bank, Delaware & Hudson Railroad, Empire Trust, Farmers Loan & Trust, Princeton Bank & Trust, Commercial Trust, Delaware Lackawanna & Western Coal, New Amsterdam Gas, Morris & Essex Railroad, Syracuse & Binghampton Railroad, Lackawanna Steel, United New Jersey Railroad, East River Gas Company, Oswego & Syracuse Railroad and many others, trustee Princeton University.

Pyne, Eben Wright
exec.- committee
Executive with National City Bank of New York (Citigroup), director of Long Island Lighting, U.S. Life Insurance, City Investing Company and Home Insurance Company, director W.R. Grace & Company 1960-1995.

Rabin, Charles H.

Randolph, Francis F.
born 1889
Wall Street financier. Treasurer Russell Trust Association.

Ray, William F.
died 2001
Related to the Sturgis and Whitney families. Advisor to the Australia and New Zealand Banking Group. Partner Brown Brothers Harriman & Company. Chairman American-Australian Association 1984-1986. President American-Australian Association 1986-1988. Patron American-Australian Association.

Raymond, Chevalier Ronald A.
Executive vice-president of Finance and Administration for the Rambusch Decorating Company of New York. He is a member of the Military Order of Foreign Wars, the New England Society, the St. George Society, the Amateur Comedy Club and the Regency Whist Club. Introduced into the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem, Priory of St. Michael & St. George (of New York) in the spring of 1997.

Reading, Lord Rufus Daniel Isaacs
British statesman. Called to the bar in 1887, he achieved great success in his profession. He entered Parliament as a Liberal in 1904, became attorney general in 1910, and in 1912 was given a seat in the cabinet. Involved in charges of buying stock in the American Marconi Corp. While the government was contracting with the British branch of the firm, he was, however, exonerated and in 1913 was created lord chief justice. During World War I he served the government in financial operations, becoming (1915) president of an Anglo-French loan commission to the United States, where he subsequently served as special envoy (1917) and special ambassador (1918–19). In 1921 he was made viceroy of India at a time when the temper of the people, partly under the influence of Mohandas Gandhi and partly as a result of the massacre at Amritsar (1919), was roused against British rule. Faced with the passive resistance of the Gandhi adherents, Isaacs authorized the imprisonment of Gandhi and felt compelled to allow the hated salt tax. He returned to England in 1926 and was created a marquess (having already been created in succession baron, viscount, and earl), but he was much criticized for his administrative acts in India. He was (1931) foreign secretary in Ramsay MacDonald's National government.

Reed, Philip Dunham
Electrical Engineering and law degrees, admitted to the New York State Bar Association 1925, patent counselor Van Heusen Company, deputy director Materials Division of the War Production Board 1942, working with other Pilgrims from General Electric. Reed was re-assigned to assist (Pilgrim) Averell Harriman as the Deputy Chief of the U.S. Mission for Economic Affairs in London in 1943, becoming chief of that mission with the rank of minister in October 1943, serving until January 1945. After leaving the U. S. Mission for Economic Affairs, Reed served as legal consultant to the U.S. delegation to the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco; this led to Reed's long affiliation with the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). He was a member of the ICC from 1945-1975; he served as president from 1949 to 1951. Reed headed the U.S. Mission on Anglo-American Council of Productivity, a Marshall Plan agency, established in 1948. Reed was vice chairman of the Business Advisory Council of the Department of Commerce (became the Business Council in 1961) from 1951 to 1952. He was also active in the Committee for Economic Development where he served as a trustee and a member of the Research & Policy Committee from 1946 to 1975. Reed acted as an Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships trustee from 1953 to 1975, serving as Vice Chairman from 1955 to 1975, and Chairman of the Finance Committee from 1956 to 1958. Reed also served as a Trustee of the Samuel H. Kress Foundation from 1960 to 1965, and as a Trustee of the Winston Churchill Foundation of the United States from 1970 to 1975. President and chief executive officer General Electric Company 1940-1942 & 1945-1959, chairman International General Electric 1945-1952, chairman Finance Committee and General Electric Pension Trust 1952-1959, member Committee on the University and World Affairs 1960, director Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1959-1960, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1960-1965, chairman Executive Committee of the International Executive Service Corps 1966-1974, director Council on Foreign Relations 1946-1969. Director of American Express, Bankers Trust Company, Bigelow-Sanford Inc., Cowles Communication, Kraftco Corporation, Otis Elevator, Metropolitan Life Insurance, Scott Paper, Tiffany & Co., U. S. Financial Inc., Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Ford Foundation, visitor Bohemian Grove 1966-1988, stood in contact with the American Ditchley foundation 1957-1986.

Rehnquist, William H.
Served in World War II from 1943 to 1946, working as a weather observer in North Africa. MA in political sciences at Stanford University in 1950. Active in the Republican Party and served as a legal advisor to Barry Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign. Associate Justice at the US Supreme Court 1972-1986. 16th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court 1986-2005, where he followed up Pilgrim Warren E. Burger. Automatically appointed chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution during his appointment as Chief Justice.

Reid, Whitelaw
exec. committee
American journalist and diplomat, managing editor New York Tribune in 1868. After Greeley's death, Reid gained financial as well as editorial control of the paper and continued it as a leading journal of the nation. While publishing the Tribune, he was minister to France 1889-1892, was the Republican candidate for vice president in 1892, and was ambassador to Great Britain from 1905-1912. Reid wrote many books on war and foreign affairs. Reid was special Ambassador of the U.S. to Queen Victoria’s Jubilee, 1897, and again to the Coronation of King Edward VII in 1902.

Reid, Ogden Mills
Publisher of the Republican and the New York Tribune, purchased the New York Herald and made it into the New York Herald Tribune, co-founder of the American-Australian Association in 1948 by a 1946 Inaugural Meeting at the University Club in New York.

Reid, Ogden Rogers
exec. committee
Yale Book and Snake, owner New York Herald Tribune, chairman New York Herald Tribune 1953-1959, U.S. ambassador to Israel 1959-1961, House of Representatives1962-1975, advisor to JFK, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Renwick of Clifton, Lord Robin
Educated at Cambridge University and the University of Paris. Advisor to Lord Carrington during the negotiations which ended the war in Rhodesia in 1980 and political advisor to Lord Soames during the ceasefire and elections leading to the independence of Zimbabwe (new name of Rhodesia). Awarded a knighthood in 1988. British Ambassador to South Africa 1987-1991. Played a leading role in the diplomacy which led to the abolition of apartheid. British Ambassador to Washington 1991-1995. Appointed to the House of Lords by Prime Minister Blair in 1997 and became Labour spokesman on Foreign Affairs. He is Vice Chairman Investment Banking of JP Morgan, Europe Chairman of Fluor Ltd., director of BHP Billiton, Harmony Gold, SABMiller plc, and Compagnie Financiere Richemont AG. Director of British Airways 1996-2005. Former deputy chairman of the merchant bank, Robert Fleming. Trustee of The Economist and the Helen Suzman Foundation. Patron of GAP Activity Projects. Director of BritishAmerican Business Inc. of New York and London (BABi). Governor of the Ditchley Foundation. Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Reynolds, Richard S., Jr.
After a successful, but brief career in investment banking, Richard Jr. joined his father's company in 1938. Under his leadership, Reynolds Corporation expanded tremendously, buying more government plants and establishing facilities across the globe in such countries as Jamaica, the Philippines and Venezuela. In 1948, assets were $114 million and reached a level of over $1 billion by 1963. Richard Jr. also was a chairman of Robertshaw Controls Company, which is/was very big in manufacturing car thermostats and other car parts, and a director of Central National of Richmond Corp.

Rhinelander, Philip
Seems to have been a very prominent person at the turn of the last century and attended parties with the Astors, Vanderbilts, Morgans and Rockefellers. William Rhinelander, a relative, left an estate valued at $50 million in 1907. That's all I have.

Rhodes, Cecil John
Possibly a co-founder
Moved to South-Africa for medical reasons. While Rhodes worked in the cotton fields, his brother worked in Kimberly in a diamond mine. After some time, Herbert offered partnership to Rhodes in his mining company down in Kimberly. Rhodes accepted without regret. Rhodes used the money that he made from the diamond mine to pay for his education at the University of Oxford in England. Before Rhodes received his degree, he was elected to the Parliament of Cape Colony, in South Africa, where he had done some of his studying and research. Rhodes spent a long term serving on the parliament in Cape Colony, and was immediately elected to the prime minister of Cape Colony. In 1891, Rhodes and four colleagues founded the "De Beers Consolidated Limited Mining Company" in Kimberly, with capital of two hundred thousand dollars (provided by the Rothschild family). He monopolized the entire diamond industry, amassing a fortune for himself. In that same year, De Beers Mining Company became the largest mining company in the world. He also was the founder of the Round Table in 1891, which eventually led to societies as The Pilgrims. In a later stage of his life he became privy councilor and pretty much ruled over southern Africa. After his death, he donated his whole fortune to the creation of a secret society network, which was ment to "absorb the wealth of the world" and create a worldwide English speaking empire under British rule. It is believed by some that his donation led to the establishment of the Pilgrims Society.

Richard, Sir Ivor Seward
born 1932
He was called to the Bar in 1955 and practised as a Barrister in London. He had been an active member of the Labour Party, member of the English Speaking Union, and the Fabian Society. Richard was elected to parliament in 1964 and served briefly as an assistant to Dennis Healey (attended first Bilderberg conference) as Secretary of State for Defence. He was appointed as Minister for the Army in 1969 and was pro-Europe, a view not very popular with labour. Healey served as UK Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 1975 to 1979. He became a figure of controversy after the then US Ambassador, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, criticised the UN for passing a resolution stating that zionism was a form of racism, and Richard denounced him for behaving "like the Wyatt Earp of international politics"; shortly thereafter Moynihan was removed from office by Henry Kissinger. In 1980 he was chosen by the Labour Party to take one of the posts on the European Commission, where he took responsibility for Employment, Social Policy, Education and Training. Richard returned to Wales in 1985 and was appointed Chairman of World Trade Centre Wales Ltd., trying to persuade international business to invest in the country of his birth. In 1990, his name was included in a list of Labour Party 'Working Peers' and he became an opposition spokesman in the House of Lords. His Barrister's style led to his appointment as Leader of the Labour Peers from 1992, which brought with it appointment to the Privy Council. When Labour won the 1997 election, Richard became Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. With Labour policy favouring a reform of the House starting with removal of the Hereditary Peers, Richard began work on the new composition of the House, but was shocked when he was suddenly removed at the first reshuffle in July 1998 to be replaced by Baroness Jay of Paddington. His thoughts on the reform of the House were published in Unfinished Business in 1999 and Richard became a critical friend of the Government. The Coalition Government in the National Assembly for Wales invited Richard to Chair a Commission on the future powers of the Assembly from 2002. The report was published on March 31, 2004 and recommended that the Assembly have full primary legislative powers in devolved areas from 2011, a recommendation that was controversial with Wales' Labour MPs.

Richardson, Frank W.
Radio station chain operator.

Richardson, Elliot L.
Graduated from Harvard College in 1941. U.S. Army 1942-1945 (Purple Heart and participated in D-Day). Graduated from the Harvard Law School in 1947. Law clerk to Justice Learned Hand of the U.S. Court of Appeals and then to Justice Felix Frankfurter of the U.S. Supreme Court. Associate and partner in the Boston law firm Ropes and Gray. Assistant to Senator Leverett Saltonstall of Massachusetts 1953-1954. Assistant secretary in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 1957-1959. U.S. attorney for Massachusetts 1959-1961. Special assistant to the U.S. attorney general 1961. Lieutenant governor 1965-1967. Attorney General of Massachusetts 1967-1969. Under secretary of state 1969-1970. Secretary of health, education, and welfare 1970-1973. Nixon's Secretary of Defense for 4 months in 1973 (Nixon ordered Richardson to fire the Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox; Richardson refused this order and resigned). U.S. Attorney General 1973-1974. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1974-1975. Ambassador to Great Britain 1975-1977. Secretary of commerce 1975-1977. Ambassador at large 1977-1980. Special representative for the Law of the Sea Conference 1977-1980. Partner with the law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy. Spoke and wrote widely on national security and other issues. Legal counsel for Inslaw, the company formed to develop the PROMIS (PROsecution Management Information Systems) software in the early 1980's (Its president, Bill Hamilton, was a former NSA programmer). The Elliot L. Richardson Prize for Excellence in Public Service was established in early 2000 "to recognize extraordinary, sustained accomplishment and integrity in government service and to encourage achievement by future public leaders at the level Richardson demonstrated in service to his country." They have a tendency to give Pilgrims an award; Sandra Day O'Conner, Colin Powell, George Shultz (former Secretary of State), etc. Member of the Bohemian Grove and a Freemason.

Richardson, Lord Gordon
Lord Richardson of Duntisbourne; educated at Cambridge University, graduated with law degrees in 1937 & 1938; called to the Bar in 1946; Member of the Bar Council 1951-1955; with Industrial & Commercial Finance Corporation 1955-1957; director of J. Henry Schroder & Co Ltd. 1957-1960, vice-chairman 1960-1962, and chairman 1962- 1972; Chairman of the Industrial Development Advisory Board 1972-1973; Director of the Bank of England 1967-1973; presided over the G-10 meetings in the seventies and eighties; governor of the Bank of England 1973-1983; made a member of the Privy Council in 1976; member of the Order of the Garter since 1983; long time member of the Morgan Stanley Advisory Board since 1984. director of the Bank for International Settlements 1973-1985; vice-chairman of the Bank for International Settlements 1985-1988 & 1991-1993; chairman of the Group of Thirty 1985-1991; honorary chairman of the Group of Thirty since 1991; chairman of Morgan Stanley International Incorporated 1986-1995; chairman of the International Advisory Board Chemical Bank, New York, 1986-1996; vice-chairman of the International Advisory Council of Chase Manhattan Bank 1996-1998; director of Rolls Royce; governor of the Ditchley Foundations; member of the Order of the British Empire; patron of the British Malaysian Society. In the 70s and 80s, he maintained a residence on Sutton Place in New York City, although he normally resided in London. In 2004, Lord Richardson was called in to testify against claims that the Bank of England had "shut their eyes and turned away" from BCCI's fraudulent activities. The original investigation was headed by Pilgrims Society and Order of the Garter member Lord Bingham of Cornhill.

Ridgway, Matthew Bunker
West Point graduate in 1917, supervised free elections in Nicaragua 1927, made assistant division commander and then commander of the 82d Infantry Division during WWII, with the 82d Airborne Division, Ridgway jumped with his men in the invasions of Sicily and France at the end of WWII, appointed commander of the Eighth Army in Korea during the Chinese invasion of North Korea 1950, replaced Douglas MacArthur as commander of the United Nations forces in Korea and of the Allied occupation forces in Japan 1951, succeeded Dwight D. Eisenhower as supreme commander of the Allied Powers in Europe 1952-1953, a Pilgrim diner on 14 October 1952 was held in his honor, Army chief of staff 1953-1955, protested vigorously but unsuccessfully against the Eisenhower administration's overall military policy, which emphasized air and atomic power at the expense of the army and navy, retired as a General in 1955, chairman Mellon Institute 1955-1960 (The institute merged with the Carnegie Institute in 1967).

Rifkind, Sir Malcolm Leslie
Lectured at Univ. of Rhodesia, 1967-1968. First entered Parliament in the 1974. Appointed Junior Minister at the Scottish Office in the 1979 Thatcher Government and became Minister of State at the Foreign Office in 1983. Became a Secretary of State for Scotland and Privy Councillor in 1986. On 21 December 1988, Rifkind was the first British government official in Lockerbie after the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, as Scottish secretary. After touring the wreckage, he gave the first indication that the plane had exploded. In 1990 he was moved by John Major to Transport, and became Defence Secretary in 1992. In the final years of the Major administration he was the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. He received a knighthood in John Major’s resignation honours. Out of government from 1997-2005. Rifkind was hired by Australia-based BHP in 1997, as a 'door-opener' to the Middle East. Vocal critic of the 2003 Iraq War. Implicated in the Oil-for-Food scandal when Iraqi documents surfaced after the invasion. Non-executive chairman of ArmorGroup International since April 2004, a London-based mercenary company. Elected again in 2005 and was appointed Shadow Work and Pensions Secretary. He has been spoken of as a contender to replace Michael Howard as Conservative leader. Director at Aberdeen Asset Management. Non-executive director at Ramco Energy and British Assets Investment Trust. Consultant to BHP Billiton, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and Petrofac (another energy company). Governor of the Ditchley Foundation.

Roberts, Lord Frederick Sleigh
Became the 1st Earl Roberts of Kandahar. Joined the Bengal artillery in 1851, fought against the Indian Mutiny 1857–1858, where he earned the Victoria Cross. By 1875 he was quartermaster general of the Indian army and a strong advocate of the “forward” policy of controlling the Himalayan passes to forestall Russian encroachments; this became the general defensive policy of the British in India. He became a popular British hero for the relief of Kandahar in the second Afghan War 1878–1880. Roberts was made commander in chief of the Madras army in 1880 and of the entire Indian forces in 1885. In 1893 he returned to England and wrote his reminiscences, Forty-one Years in India 1897. He became field marshal in 1895. In 1899, when the English were meeting reverses at the hands of the Boers in the South African War, Roberts was appointed commander in chief and fought them. Aided by his chief of staff, Horatio Kitchener (Freemasonry grand master) Roberts reorganized the transport system, achieving a mobility that had been lacking. By late 1900 the war seemed near a successful conclusion, and Roberts was brought home, awarded an earldom, and appointed commander in chief of the British army. His office was abolished in 1904, and thereafter he devoted himself to the advocacy of compulsory military service for home defense. Roberts was a Knight of the Garter.

Robertson, Lord
The Right Honourable Lord Robertson of Port Ellen has been the 10th Secretary General of NATO and Chairman of the North Atlantic Council since October 1999. He was Defence Secretary of the United Kingdom from 1997-1999 and Member of Parliament for Hamilton and Hamilton South from 1978-1999. George Islay MacNeill Robertson was born in 1946 in Port Ellen, Isle of Islay, Scotland, and educated at Dunoon Grammar School and the University of Dundee. He graduated MA (Honours) in Economics in 1968. He was a full time official of the General, Municipal and Boilermakers' Union (GMB) responsible for the Scottish Whisky industry from 1968-1978. He was first elected to the House of Commons in 1978, and reelected five times. He was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Social Services in 1979. After the 1979 General Election, he was appointed an Opposition Spokesman, first on Scottish Affairs, then on Defence, and on Foreign Affairs from 1982 to 1993. He became Chief Spokesman on Europe in 1983. He served as the principal Opposition Spokesman on Scotland in the Shadow Cabinet from 1993-1997. After the 1997 General Election, Prime Minister Blair appointed him Defence Secretary of the United Kingdom, a position he held until his departure in October 1999. In August 1999 he was selected to be the tenth Secretary General of NATO in succession to Dr Javier Solana. On 24 August he received a life peerage and took the title Lord Robertson of Port Ellen. He is a former Chairman of the Scottish Labour Party, was Vice-chairman of the Westminster Foundation for Democracy, served as Vice-Chairman of the British Council for nine years. He was, for seven years, on the Council of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) where he now serves as co-president. He is a Governor of the Ditchley Foundation and a Trustee of the 21st Century Trust. Named joint Parliamentarian of the Year in 1993 for his role during the Maastricht Treaty ratification. He was appointed a member of Her Majesty's Privy Council in May 1997. Has visited Bilderberg in 1998 and 2001. In 2003, Lord Robertson was accused of using his influence as a Freemason to arrange a gun licence for Thomas Hamilton, who would later use it to shoot 16 children in the Dunblane Massacre before killing himself. In turn, Hamilton was accused of running a paedophile ring for British politicians. Robertson and Hamilton were also accused of being Freemasons. In any case, the judge who slapped a 100 year secrecy order on a police inquiry into the Dunblane massacre later turned out to be a Freemason.

Robinson, Leland Rex
Member Near-East Relief Commission 1920, wrote 'Investment Trust Organization and Management' in 1926, vice chairman Economists National Committee on Monetary Policy, member Commission To Study The Organization Of Peace, member Enemy Alien Hearing Board 1943-1945, chairman and vice president Iran Foundation, together with Thomas W. Lamont, John Foster Dulles and Edward R. Murrow (did the most successful attack on Joseph McCarthy via CBS) he was a trustee of the Institute of International Education, received the Royal Order of Homayun from the Shah of Iran, decorated the Order of the Brilliant Star by China.

Rockefeller, John Davison, Jr.
First loan from National City Bank of Cleveland (Stillman, Morgan), Established Standard Oil Company in 1870, trustee of the China Medical Board, etc.

Rockefeller, Percy Avery

Son of William D. Rockefeller, who was the brother of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. Yale Skull & Bones 1901. Married Isabel Stillman. Director of National City Bank. W.A. Harriman & Co., American International Corporation (AIG), New York Edison, Anaconda Copper Mines, Georgian Manganese Company, Guaranty Trust, Chile Copper Company, Atlantic Fruit Company, Bethlehem Steel, W.A. Harriman & Company, United States Realty & Improvement Company, Western Union Telegraph, Consolidated Gas, United Metals Selling Corporation, Remington Arms Company, North American Reassurance Company, Seaboard Finance & Investment, Cuba Railroad and dozens of other companies. Became a member of the Japan Society in 1926, lost a lot of money in the stockmarket crash of 1929, had to come before an investigating committee to answer charges of stock manipulation (exonerated) in 1932. In 1936, his son Avery Rockefeller II, after having been associated behind the scenes with J. Henry Schroder Banking Corporation, becomes vice-president and partner in the newly formed Schroder, Rockefeller & Company, Inc. Baron Bruno von Schroder in London and Baron Kurt von Schroder in Germany (Nazi insider; ITT; J. H. Stein & Company; BIS) are his partners. Lawyers of Schroder, Rockefeller & Company, Inc. was John Foster Dulles' Sullivan & Cromwell.

Rockefeller, James Stillman
Yale Scroll & Key. Won a gold medal in rowing at the Paris Olympics of 1924. Married Nancy Carnegie in 1925 (grand-niece of Andrew Carnegie). Worked at Brown Brothers. Joined the National City Bank in 1930, which was owned by grandfathers William Rockefeller and James Stillman (Sr.). His uncle, Percy Avery Rockefeller (Skull & Bones), married another daughter of James Stillman (Sr.). Served in Airborne Command during WWII. President First National City Bank 1952-1959. Chairman First National City Bank 1959-1967 (became Citibank, Citicorp, Citigroup).

Rockefeller, Nelson Aldrich
Dartmouth College Psi Upsilon Fraternity. Director Rockefeller Center 1931-1958. Coordinator Office of Inter-American Affairs 1940-1944, which his family had co-founded with John Hay Whitney and others. Present at the United Nations founding in San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945, where he played a prominent role. His father donated the land the United Nations headquarters was built on. Assistant Secretary of State for Latin America 1944-1945. Truman dismissed Nelson from the State Department, apparently at the insistence of new Secretary of State Dean Acheson (Pilgrims Society) who resented Nelson's successful effort to have Axis-sympathetic Argentina included in the United Nations. Chairman of the Inter-American Development Commission 1940-1947. Formed the International Basic Economy Corporation in 1947, which invested heavily in supermarkets in Latin America. Created the American International Association for Economic and Social Development (AIA), which was a non-profit organisation supposedly established to promote reforms in the fields of agriculture and health in Latin America. The Rockefellers also had stock in the United Fruit Company. Chairman International Development Advisory Board 1950-1951. Chairman President's Advisory Committee on Government Organization 1952-1958. Special Assistant for Cold War Planning to Eisenhower December 1954-December 1955. Member of the Operations Coordinating Board in 1955 during which time he was briefed by Allen Dulles on all the CIA's covert operations. Nelson, even in his Senate bio, is named as a chairman of the secret Forty Committee, a group of high government officials who were charged with overseeing the CIA's clandestine operations. No date has been given. Governor of New York 1959–1973. Vice-president of the United States under Gerald Ford 1974–1977. Chairman National Commission on Critical Choices for America. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Cosmos Club and the Century Association. Died in 1979 when he was with his mistress, Megan Marshak. Cremated within 18 hours after his death. There is no known "tell all" of the events by Marshak, and she appears to have dropped out of public view since Rockefeller's death.

Rockefeller, David
Born in 1915 and youngest son of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Descendant of the German-Jewish Roggenfelder family which came to the United States in 1722. Attended school in New York City and graduated with a bachelor's degree in English history and literature from Harvard University in 1936. This was followed with a Ph.D. (1940) in economics from the University of Chicago and a study at both Harvard and the London School of Economics. Married Margaret "Peggy" McGrath in September 1940 and they raised six children, including son David Rockefeller Jr. Along with his brothers - John D. III, Nelson, Laurance, and Winthrop, David Rockefeller established the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) in 1940. Became a trustee of The Rockefeller Institute (later transformed into a university) for Medical Research in 1940. Trustee Rockefeller University 1940-1995. Secretary to New York City Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia 1940-1941. Assistant regional director of the United States Office of Defense, Health and Welfare Service 1941-1942. Enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1942. Military Intelligence officer in North Africa and Southern France 1942-1945. Set up an intelligence network in Algiers and was an insider to the battle between Charles De Gaulle and Henri Giraud for control over the French resistance. First became friends with William Paley (Pilgrims) and C.D. Jackson in Algiers. Met with ambassador Robert Murphy, a staunch Giraud supporter. Met David Bruce in 1945, head of the OSS. He would meet Bruce and his wife again in 1973 in China, where he would be invited for dinner. Assistant Military Attaché in Paris in the last 7 months of the war. Joined Chase National/Manhattan Bank in 1946 as an assistant manager under Winthrop W. Aldrich (Rockefeller intermarried) in the Foreign Department. Assistant manager in the Foreign Department, Chase National Bank 1947-1948. David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pg. 149: "I received a visit one morning in early spring 1947 from the new president of the Carnegie Endowment for International peace... After the usual pleasantries Hiss told me I had been elected to the board of the Carnegie Endowment, and he hoped I would agree to serve... I was flattered to be asked to join the Endowment's prestigious board, which included such luminaries as General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Thomas J. Watson, the founder of IBM. John Foster Dulles, the eminent international lawyer, was chairman... I had known him and his family since my college years. Foster had a reputation of being cold, austere, and puritanical, but the man I knew had a sense of humor and could be a wonderful companion. His daughter Lillias had been part of a small group of friends during my college years and one of Peggy's closest friends. In fact, when I was courting Peggy in the 1930s, she always stayed with the Dulleses at their New York town house. When I mentioned Hiss's offer to Nelson, he told me in confidence that a high-level FBI official had warned him there was reliable information indicating Hiss was a Soviet agent. I reported this to Foster, who said he didn't believe it... I accepted his judgment and joined the endowment's board in May 1947. A year later the spy charges against Alger Hiss would become front-page news." Played a major role in the development of the Morningside Heights neighborhood on the Upper West Side of Manhattan as president (1947-1957) and then chairman (1957-1965) of Morningside Heights, Inc. Second vice president Chase National Bank 1948-1949. Director of the Museum of Modern Art 1948-1958. Vice president Chase National Bank 1949-1952. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1970. Chairman of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research 1950-1975. In 1953, at this position, he recruited Detlev W. Bronk as president of the Rockefeller Institute and head of its medical research program. Bronk, a biophysicist, appeared on the initial membership list of the MJ-12 study group. Senior vice president of Chase National Bank with responsibility for supervising the economic research department and customer relations in the metropolitan New York area, including all the New York City branches 1952-1955. Attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and was one of its founders. When Chase National and the Bank of the Manhattan Company merged in 1955, David Rockefeller was appointed an executive vice president in charge of the bank development department. In 1957, he became vice chairman of the Board of Directors with responsibility for the administrative and planning functions of the bank as a whole. Briefly chairman of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1958. Again chairman of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1962-1972, and again in 1987-1993. Life trustee of the University of Chicago (which his grandfather helped to establish) and an honorary trustee of International House (New York), established by his father. In 1958 David Rockefeller helped establish the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (D-LMA), serving as its chairman 1958-1975. 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pg. 448-449: "In late 1959 we were guests of Stavros [1001 Club] and Eugenie Niarchos for a week's sail through the Aegean aboard their three-masted schooner, The Creole... I had met Stavros six years earlier when he came to Chase's headquarters for a business meeting... Even though Stavros and I had little in common, we developed a good personal relationship and became business partners in many real estate deals in the United States, including the purchase of Rockefeller Center.... Our friends Jack [H.J. Heinz II; Pilgrims Society and Bilderberg organizer] and Drue Heinz of Pittsburgh were also on that 1959 voyage, as were Hans (Heini) Heinrich and Fiona Thyssen-Bornemisza [1001 Club], whom we met for the first time. Heini was the grandson of the famous August Thyssen, the "Rockefeller of the Ruhr," founder of Germany's Vereinigte Stahlwerke... Our cruise brought out the fact that we were all interested in art... The following May [1960]... we all flew to Lugano to spend the weekend with the Thyssens. When we arrived at Heini's home, the Villa Favorita, we were awestruck... It was the most beautiful private [art] collection we have ever seen." Primary founder of the Dartmouth Conferences in 1960, which was initiated at Dartmouth College in an effort to prevent U.S.-Soviet nuclear conflict. Only influential private citizens with no government positions were supposed to meet here. President Chase Manhattan 1961-1969. David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs': "Given the similarity in our interests, I was disappointed that Jack [John J. McCloy] and I never developed a close personal relationship... Frequently at gatherings I attended, Jack related the story of his first contact with my family. He had worked his way to college and law school in part by tutoring during the summer and had travelled to Maine in the summer of 1912, three years before I was born, hoping to get a job on Mount Desert Island. One of the families he decided to contact was mine... [he was] turned away... Nelson [Rockefeller] reportedly told him the "family had used its influence" to make him chairman and that one of his jobs was to ensure that "David would succeed him when he retired." It seems quite possible that Nelson made the comment or one quite similar to it. He could be quite high-handed and no doubt thought he was doing me a favor. But if Nelson made a statement of this kind, it certainly was not the result of a family decision or a request from me. It would have been highly inappropriate for anyone in the family to make such a demand. Unfortunately, if the story was true, it may have permanently altered Jack's attitude toward me... Quite possibly Jack could never look at me without remembering the long, dusty walk up the hill in Seal Harbor and the big wooden door being closed quietly but firmly in his face." In 1962, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began plans to build the World Trade Center, which was pushed hard for by David and Nelson Rockefeller. Founding member of the Commission on White House Fellows, 1964. David had a two and a half hour meeting in Moscow with Nikita Khrushchev in the summer of 1964. He reported to president Johnson that Khrushchev would like to do more trade with the United States and David recommended that more credit should be extended to the Russians. Met Khrushchev's successor, Leonid Brezhnev, soon afterwards. Also met Chou En-lai in the 1960s, to discuss economic cooperation. Other leaders David met with are Deng Xiaoping, Nasser, Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro, the Shah of Iran, etc. David is on very good terms with Nelson Mandela and they regularly meet each other. It's interesting to note that Mandela is one of George W. Bush's fiercest critiques. Instrumental in the formation of the International Executive Service Corps and chairman 1964-1968. Founder Americas Society in 1965 (then called Council of the Americas). Helped found the Rockefeller Family Fund in 1967. Helped form The Business Committee for the Arts in 1967. 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pg. 413: "Bilderberg overlapped for a time with my membership in a relatively obscure but potentially even more controversial body known as the Pesenti Group [likely Le Cercle]. I had first learned about it in October 1967 when Carlo Pesenti [Vatican sponsored; Banco Ambrosiano shareholder], the owner of a number of important Italian corporations, took me aside at a Chase investment forum in Paris and invited me to join his group, which discussed contemporary trends in European and world politics. It was a select group, he told me, mostly European... Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Konrad Adenauer were founding members of the group, but by the time I joined, they had been replaced by an equally prominent roster that included Antoine Pinay... Giulio Andreotti... and Franz-Josef Strauss... The discussions were conducted in French, and usually I was the sole American present, although on a few occasions when the group assembled in Washington, Henry Kissinger, at the time President Nixon's national security advisor, joined us for dinner. Members of the Pesenti Group were all committed to European political and economic integration, but a few - Archduke Otto of Austria... Monsignor Alberto Giovanetti of the Vatican and a prominent member of Opus Dei... and Jean-Paul León Violet... - were preoccupied by the Soviet threat and the inexolerable rise to power of the Communist parties of France and Italy. Pesenti set the agenda for our thrice-yearly meetings, and Maître Violet, who had close connections with the Deuxième Bureau of the Services des Renseignements (the French CIA), provided lengthy background briefings. Using an overhead projector, Violet display transparency after transparency filled with data documenting Soviet infiltration of governments around the world and supporting his belief that the threat of global Communist victory was quite real. While all of us knew the Soviets were behind the "wars of national liberation" in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, I was not personally convinced the Red Menace was quite as menacing as Maître Violet portrayed it to be, but my view was a minority one in that group. Even though I found some of the discussions fascinating, the ultraconservative politics of some participants were more than a bit unnerving. My Chase associates, who feared my membership could be construed as "consorting with reactionaries," eventually prevailed upon me to withdraw." Chairman and CEO of the board of Chase Manhattan 1969-1981. Chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1970-1985. In May 1973 Chase Manhattan Bank opened it Moscow office at 1 Karl Marx Square, Moscow. Chairman of the Overseas Development Council of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council, Inc., which was founded in 1973. Founder of the Trilateral Commission in 1973. 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pg. 207: "We [Chase; mid 1970s] approached three banks in the Rothschild Group. Since both Evelyn de Rothschild, chairman of L.M. Rothschild, and Leon Lambert, chairman of Banque Lambert (a Rothschild through his mother), were personal friends, I had positive initial conversations with them." Chairman Trilateral Commission 1977-1991. Founded the New York City Partnership in 1979 and was chairman 1979-1988. Chairman Chase Manhattan Bank Advisory Committee 1981-1999. Trustee Carnegie Endowment International Peace since 1981. President of the Harvard College Board of Overseers; life trustee of the University of Chicago; one of the most important members of the Bilderberg committee; visitor of the Bohemian Grove Stowaway camp; member American-Australian Association; chairman Americas Society 1981-1992; chairman Rockefeller Group 1981-1995. Helped to establish the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University in 1994. Chairman of Rockefeller Center Properties 1996-2001; became a director of the Shinsei Bank in 2000; chairman Rockefeller University; chairman of the Museum of Modern Art; member International Council of J.P. Morgan Chase; wrote 'Unused Resources and Economic Waste' (1940), 'Creative Management in Banking' (1964), and 'Memoirs' (2002); major shareholder of Atlantic Richfield Petroleum and International Petroleum Corporation (also a napalm manufacturer). David is the last of the "Fortunate Five" brothers. Winthrop died in 1972 after having been devastated by a chemotherapy procedure; John D. III died in a 1978 car crash; Nelson died in 1979 in bed with his mistress. Laurance died in 2004 of natural causes. David and Laurance were members of the Peace Parks foundation. David has attended meetings of Le Cercle and is a member of the Pilgrims Society.

Rockefeller, William
exec. comm.
d. 1990
Source: Officers list of the Pilgrims of the United States
Great-grandnephew of John D. Rockefeller Sr. Graduated from Yale University in 1940. Served on destroyers and cruisers in the Pacific during WWII, rising to the rank of lieutenant commander. Law degree from Columbia University in 1948. Partner in the Manhattan law firm of Shearman & Sterling since the mid-1950s. President of the Westminster Kennel Club and the American Kennel Club. President of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 1956-1964. Chairman of the Baker Institute at Cornell University, an organization that does research on animal health. Chairman of the board of the Oldfields School, a boarding school in Glencoe, Md. Chairman and president of the Metropolitan Opera Association. Member of the board of the Cranston Print Works and Oneida Ltd., a tableware manufacturer. Secretary of Memorial Sloan-Kettering. Director of Paul Smith's College. Pilgrims Society executive since 1986. Died in 1990 at age 71.

Roe, Charles Francis
In the campaign of 1876, 2nd Lt. Charles Roe commanded Company F, 2nd Cavalry. On June 26th, near the Little Bighorn River, he saw on the far hills what appeared to be a large group of dead buffalo -- in fact, the distant figures were the slain horses and men of Custer's command.

Roosa, Robert Vincent
Rhodes scholar. Senior official of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1946-1960, finally reaching the position of vice president in the bank's research department. While he was on the staff of the Federal Reserve Bank of N.Y., Roosa trained a group known as the 'Roosa Bloc' (or Rosa 'Brain Trust'), his chief protege being Paul Volcker. Undersecretary of the Treasury 1961-1964. Became a Partner in Brown Brothers Harriman & Company in 1965. Authored 'Monetary Reform For The World Economy' (1965). Gave a speech in Munich to the Atlantic Institute of International Affairs on November 11, 1974. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Advisor to the International Finance Corporation (World Bank affiliate). Director American Express, Cities Communications, Owens-Corning Fiberglass, Prudential Insurance, and Texaco. Chairman of the New York Stock Exchange Advisory Committee on the International Capital Market. Chairman of the Brookings Institution 1975-1986. Trustee of the National Bureau for Economic Research. President of the American Finance Association. Member of the American Economic Association and the Royal Economic Society of London. Governor of the United Nations Association. Vice chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation. Founding member and secretary of the Trilateral Commission. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1966-1981. Frequent Bilderberg attendee. Member of the Pilgrims Society.

Roosevelt, John
Son of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Educated at Groton and Harvard, John worked at Filene's Department Store in Boston until World War II broke out in 1941. He served in the navy until 1946 and thereafter pursued a business career on the West Coast. In 1952, he became a Republican so he could support Dwight Eisenhower's bid for the presidency. John's defection from the Democratic party and his subsequent leadership of Citizens for Eisenhower caused family friction. John became an officer and director of Standard Uranium, owned by Pilgrim Floyd Odlum. In 1967, John joined Bache & Company (owned by Pilgrim Jules S. Bache). He retired as a vice-president in 1980. His philanthropic activities included serving as a fund raiser with the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, which FDR had founded, membership on the executive committee of the Greater New York Council of the Boy Scouts of America and service as a trustee of the State University of New York.

Root, Elihu
Second cousin twice removed of Henry Luce (Pilgrim and Skull & Bones), and descended from the Spencer family. After graduation from Hamilton College in 1864, Root taught for one year at the Rome Academy in 1865. Graduated from the Law School of New York University in 1867. Admitted to the bar in the same year and commenced practice in New York City. Served private clients including Jay Gould (later Pilgrims member), Chester A. Arthur, Charles Anderson Dana, William C. Whitney, Thomas Fortune Ryan, and Edward Henry Harriman (later Pilgrims member). As a Republican reformer, he was a junior member of a distinguished defense team representing Boss Tweed in 1873, a powerful mafia boss in New York who controlled almost every single United States Democratic Party nomination for the city and the state, had robbed New York city of anywhere between $30 and $200 million, and was an associate of Jay Gould. The equivalent of a millionaire by the age of thirty. Root married Clara Frances Wales, who was the daughter of Salem Wales, the managing editor of Scientific American, in 1878. U.S. District Attorney for Southern District NYC 1883-1885. Hired Henry Lewis Stimson out of law school in 1891, who was a member of S&B and became a member of the Pilgrims. Delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1894. In 1898 McKinley calls him on the new-fangled telephone and says, "I want you to be Secretary of War". This was just after the US had defeated Spain. Root says, "I can't do that. I'm a lawyer. I don't know anything about war. I don't know anything about the Army. I have no experience with government. I have never been to Washington." McKinley said, "I don't care about any of that. You're a smart lawyer and you will be the first person charged in the history of the United States with running colonies, and I want somebody with good common sense, a pragmatic problem solver, a lawyer like you." He remained Secretary of War until 1904. During this time he was responsible for enlarging West Point and establishing the U.S. Army War College as well as the General Staff. Identified by U.S. Diplomat and CFR-endorsed Warren Zimmermann as one of the "forefathers of American Imperialism", together with naval strategist Alfred T. Mahan, senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Secretary of State John Hay, and president Theodore Roosevelt. Secretary of State under Theodore Roosevelt 1905-1909. Senator 1909-1915. First president of the Carnegie Foundation 1910-1925 and a primary founder of Carnegie Europe. Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912. At the outbreak of World War I, Root opposed President Woodrow Wilson's policy of neutrality. President of the American Bar Association 1915-1916. In June 1917, during WWI, he was sent to Russia by President Wilson to arrange American co-operation with the new revolutionary government. Pilgrims Society member Samuel R. Bertron went with him. He summed up his attitude to the Provisional Government very trenchantly: "No fight, no loans." The official CFR website states: "But it was a more discreet club of New York financiers and international lawyers organized in June 1918 that most attracted the attention of the Americans from the Peace Conference. Headed by Elihu Root, the secretary of state under Theodore Roosevelt and a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, this select group called itself the Council on Foreign Relations. It began with 108 members, Shepardson recorded, “high-ranking officers of banking, manufacturing, trading and finance companies, together with many lawyers.” Its purpose was to convene dinner meetings, to make contact with distinguished foreign visitors under conditions congenial to future commerce... Elihu Root headed the original Council on Foreign Relations and was instrumental in the founding of its successor." Prepared the final will of Andrew Carnegie on March 31, 1919. Elihu Root, Nicholas Murray Butler, and Stephen P. Duggan Sr. (CFR director) founded the Institute for International Education in 1919. Present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference. After World War I, Root supported the League of Nations and served on the commission of jurists, which created the Permanent Court of International Justice. In 1922, President Warren G. Harding appointed him as a delegate to the International Conference on the Limitation of Armaments. He was among the founders of the American Law Institute in 1923. Member of the Metropolitan Club, the NY Social Register, the Century Association, and the Pilgrims of the United States.

Roper, Elmo
In the 1920s he operated a jewelry store in Creston Iowa but was not very successful, public opinion analyst and early developer of modern opinion polls, director Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic 1952-1961, treasurer Atlantic Union Committee in 1960, gave speeches on globalism, director Encyclopedia Britannica.

Rothschild, Edmund Leopold
Son of Lionel de Rothschild and brother of Leopold David de Rothschild (born 1927). Sir Evelyn and Jacob de Rothschild are his younger cousins. Served as an officer in the British Army in France, North Africa, and Italy 1939-1946. In late 1944 he rose to the rank of Major and commanded a Jewish Palestinian Unit (made up of mainly refugees of the Nazis) into Italy. The unit prominently showed the Magen David. Partner of N.M. Rothschild & Sons 1946-1960. Published the book 'Window on the World' in 1949. Friend of the Japanese Tsunao Okumura. Okumura was the president of Nomura Securities between 1948 and 1959 and was seen as the king of Japanese stockbroking in the 1950s. Senior Partner of N.M. Rothschild & Sons 1960-1970. Vice-chairman of the British Newfoundland Corp. 1963-1969. Vice-chairman of Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp. 1966-1969. One of the Godfathers of Prince Bernhard's extramarital daughters, Alexia Grinda. Bernhard met the mother, the 18-year old Helene Grinda (of the noble Roussel family), in 1966, at a swimming pool of the Rothschild family. Identified as a member of the Pilgrims Society in 1969. Member of the Asia Committee of the Bank of New England Corporation 1970-1971. Chairman of the Bank of New England Corporation in 1971. Governor of the Technical University of Nova Scotia. Trustee of the Queen’s Nursing Institute. Received the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st Class (Japan), in 1973. Chairman of N.M. Rothschild & Son 1970-1975. Nurtured the gardens at Exbury. Attended the 1st World Wilderness Conference in 1977 and trustee of the International Wilderness Foundation, which sponsors these conferences. At the 4th Wilderness Conference in 1987, where Edmund was a key speaker about climate change, Maurice Strong introduced him as the "source" of this whole "Conservation Banking" movement. David Rockefeller was also present at that conference and advised George Hunt, a business advisor who recorded the event, not to distribute any rebukes of what was said or "he would regret it". President of the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women (AJEX). Presiding Officer representing AJEX at the annual Cenotaph Service of Remembrance. The Rothschild family has been intimately associated with the New West End Synagogue in London. Played himself in the 1998 movie 'In Our Own Hands', about the all-Jewish fighting force in World War II. Member of the President's Council of the Mountain Institute in 1999. One of many donors to the Children’s Blood Foundation, which was inaugurated in 2001. He has been made a Commander of the British Empire.

Royall, Kenneth Claiborne
Graduated from the University of North Carolina, 1914; was admitted to the North Carolina bar, 1916; attended Harvard University Law School and received his degree, 1917; married Margaret Best, 1917; served in France as a second lieutenant in the 317th Army Field Artillery, 1918–1919; was commissioned a captain in the North Carolina National Guard and organized a Field Artillery battery, 1921; resumed the practice of law in Raleigh and Goldsboro, North Carolina; served in the state senate, 1927; was president of the North Carolina Bar Association, 1929–1930; was a presidential elector, 1940; was commissioned a colonel, 1942, and appointed chief of the legal section, fiscal division, Headquarters, Services of Supply (later Army Service Forces); received presidential appointment to defend before the Supreme Court the German saboteurs who entered the United States clandestinely; was promoted to brigadier general and appointed deputy fiscal director of Army Service Forces; was special assistant to the Secretary of War, April–November 1945; served as Under Secretary of War, 9 November 1945–18 July 1947; served as the last Secretary of War, 19 July–17 September 1947; supervised the separation of the Department of the Air Force from the Department of the Army; became first Secretary of the Army when National Defense Act of 1947 took effect, 17 September 1947–27 April 1949; was the last Army secretary to hold the cabinet status, which was henceforth assigned to the Secretary of Defense; returned to the practice of law in New York City; was a delegate at large to the Democratic National Convention, 1964

Rusk, David Dean
Rhodes Scholar. Entered the Department of State in 1942. Assistant secretary of state for Far Eastern Affairs 1950-1952. Played a major role in the U.S. decision to take military action in the Korean War. President Rockefeller Foundation 1952-1961. Supported economic aid to underdeveloped nations, low tariffs to encourage world trade, and the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty with the Soviet Union. Secretary of State under John F. Kennedy & Lyndon B. Johnson 1961–1969. Claimed the 1967 USS Liberty incident was a deliberate attack on the ship, rather than an accident.Co-founded the Club of Rome in 1968. A firm believer in the use of military force to prevent Communist expansion. Defended the Vietnam War. Following his retirement from public service, he started teaching international law at the University of Georgia 1970-1984. Member of the Knights of Malta.

Russell, M. Lindsay
Attorney who is said to have been a liaison front man for the Vanderbilts. Moved in elite circles (present at many of the same meetings as the Morgans) and named as a co-founder of the Pilgrims of the United States in 1903. Founded the Japan Society in 1907. President of the Japan Society from 1910 to 1919.

Sanderson, Sir Percy
Her Majesty's Consul-General in the early part of the 20th century.

Sanger, William Cary
Assistant Secretary of War, 1901-1903 and was related to the Dodge family (copper mining) and the Clevelands of Presidential fame; President Grover Cleveland was in the 1903 list. Sanger was a governor of the New York State Society of Colonial Wars; and governor general of the Order of Founders and Patriots of America.

Sarnoff, David
Born in Russia, studied electrical engineering at Pratt Institute, worked at Marconi Wireless Company 1906-1919, became chief radio inspector and assistant chief engineer, when Marconi was absorbed by Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in 1919-1921, vice president and general manager 1922-1929, president RCA 1930-1947, chairman RCA 1947-1970. Oversaw RCA's manufacture of color television sets and NBC's color broadcasts (corporate headquarters at Rockefeller Center). Received 27 honorary degrees, including doctoral degrees from Columbia University and New York University. The Sarnoff Corporation is the successor organization to the David Sarnoff Research Center and the RCA Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey. Freemason.

Satterlee, Herbert
He married Louise Pierpont Morgan, daughter of J.P. Morgan, in 1900. Professionally, he was a successful lawyer, specializing in corporate and commercial law, and a senior law partner at Satterlee, Canfield and Stone. He was also a writer, contributing to newspapers and magazines as well as authoring several books, including a biography of his father-in-law, entitled J. Pierpont Morgan: An intimate Portrait, 1837-1912. Mr. Satterlee also wrote words for several songs, including "Autumn Leaves" and "Above the Shimmering Sea". For nearly four years after purchasing Sotterley, Mr. Satterlee did little by way of restoring the property. Instead he embarked upon a major research process. J.P. Morgan himself sent the men; architects, artists, landscape gardeners, foresters, farmers, road builders and wharf builders to research, overhaul, and eventually restore the plantation. Satterlee was an avid yachtsman. Herb Satterlee III is CEO and president of GIS development and spent 19 years with The Boeing Company, holding senior management positions on programs such as Teledesic, UK/ROF AWACS (international defense) and the B-1 Bomber Simulator (United States defense). (atm not 100% sure it's a grandson)

Schiff, Jacob Henry
American banker and philanthropist, born in Frankfurt, Germany and lived together with the Rothschild family in the "Green Shield" house. He emigrated to the United States in 1865 and became a partner in Kuhn Loeb & Co. in New York City. His partners are Paul Warburg (later Pilgrim) and Otto Kahn (later Pilgrim). In 1875 he married the daughter of Solomon Loeb (Nina), who headed the firm. At the age of 38 he was head of the banking house of Kuhn, Loeb and Company. In 1880, Schiff supposedly said: "I cannot for a moment concede that one can be at the same time a true American and an honest adherent of the Zionist movement." Schiff became associated with E. H. Harriman (will intermarry with the Rothschild family) in notable contests with the house of Morgan for control of Western railroads. His numerous philanthropies included the endowment of the Jewish Theological Seminary, the Montefiore Home, both in New York, and a museum at Harvard. Schiff participated in the 1910 Jekyll Island meeting, where a plan was put together to establish the Federal Reserve; a company later to be dominated by the same Pilgrims. Jacob Schiff has been instrumental in financing Trotsky and the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. He and Paul Warburg have sponsored Trotsky with millions of dollars. It seems they also took care of the safe passage of Trotsky and 275 revolutionaries from New York to Europe.

Schiff, Mortimer L.
Son of Jacob H. Schiff, scouting fanatic, art collector, director Kuhn, Loeb & Co., which is said to have bankrolled Stalin's first "five year plan".

Schiff, John M.
In 1934, he married (Pilgrim) George F. Baker Jr.'s daughter, who sat on the board of The Birth Control Federation of America, together with Carola Warburg Rothschild and Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt. In 1942 it was renamed to Planned Parenthood Foundation of America; it's board was filled with Pilgrims members or the wives of Pilgrims members (Vanderbilt, du Pont, Lamont, etc). John M. Schiff was senior partner and later chairman of Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb Company, member Council on Foreign Relations, confirmed his father's Bolshevik financing.

Schiff, David T.
Yale, director Crown Life Insurance of Toronto and Lehman Brothers, managing partner Kuhn, Loeb & Co., chairman Wildlife Conservation Society (you'll find names like Phipps, Astor, Rockefeller, Pyne, Baker III, Cullman, Hearst, multiple Schiffs and multiple Goulds on the board. Many of these members can probably be found on the membership list of the 1001 Club). Andrew Schiff, a son of Jacob Schiff, is married to Karenna Gore, a daughter of former U.S. Vice President Al Gore. The father of Al Gore was an associate of Communist agent Armand Heimer (Hammer), whose father was the founder of the American Communist Party. As you can read above, David Schiff's forefather financed the Bolshevik revolution of 1917.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr.
Renowned historian, just as his father. Office of War Information 1942-1943. OSS officer 1943-1945. Professor of history at Harvard 1946-1964. Attended a 1963 Pilgrims dinner. Albert Schweitzer Professor of Humanities at City University of New York 1966-1994. Board member of the Century Institute since 1999. Among the founders of Americans for Democratic Action. Wrote speeches for Adlai Stevenson's two Presidential campaigns. He was a good friend of Gianni Agnelli and they corresponded a lot with each other.

Schwab, Charles M.
President of the Carnegie Steel Company and, after J.P. Morgan had taken it over, president of United States Steel Corporation. After personality conflicts at U.S. Steel, he left to take over and remake another steel company, Bethlehem Steel Co., which he incorporated in 1904. In 1908, Bethlehem Steel began producing the beam that revolutionized building construction and made possible the age of the skyscraper. It also made Bethlehem Steel the second-largest steel company in the world. Schwab was a notorious gambler, union buster and businessman of dubious ethics. During World War I, Schwab supplied the British with just about anything they could pay for. To circumvent U.S. neutrality laws, Schwab shipped goods to Canada; they were sent across the Atlantic from there. He sold 65,000 tons of American rails to the Russian government for use on the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Schwab clinched the deal by bribing the mistress of the Grand Duke Alexis Aleksandrovich with a $200,000 necklace. A gambler with flair, Schwab's trips to Monte Carlo made him an international celebrity. The stock market crash of 1929 wiped out Schwab financially. He died bankrupt on Sept. 19, 1939. But World War II, which began a few weeks before his death, made his holdings worth millions -- a fitting end to the man Thomas Edison once called the "master hustler."

Schuettinger, Robert L.
Robert Schuettinger is the founder and president of the Washington International Studies Council (WISC), which originally began as a Washington academic internship program in 1983 and first sent students to Oxford in 1985. He studied at Columbia, the University of Chicago and at Oxford (Exeter and Christ Church). His graduate supervisor at Oxford in political philosophy was Professor Sir Isaiah Berlin, Fellow (and President) of the British Academy, Order of Merit, Fellow of All Souls College. He later taught at St. Andrews University in Scotland and Yale University (where he has been an Associate Fellow of Davenport College, Yale since 1974). He has lectured at the Kennedy School of Politics in Harvard and also was a Visiting Research Fellow in International Relations in MC, Oxford University for a three year term. He taught an Oxford seminar in diplomacy jointly with Professor Lord Beloff, FBA, Fellow of All Souls College. He is the author or co-author of 19 books about foreign policy from a conservative viewpoint. He also has some administrative experience in government, having served as a senior aide in foreign affairs in the US House of Representatives, as deputy to the Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, as a senior policy aide in the White House and in the Senior Executive Service in the US Information Agency and the Pentagon (Director of Long-Range Policy Planning). He was also Assistant Director for National Security Policy in a Presidential Transition Office. He was Director of Studies in the largest think-tank in Washington, The Heritage Foundation, and was founding editor of its social science quarterly, Policy Review. He is a member of the Cosmos Club and the Metropolitan Club in Washington and of the Beefsteak Club, The Reform Club and of the United Oxford and Cambridge University Club in London. He is also a member of The Pilgrims, the Anglo-American Society.

Scott, Harold B.
Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce, who lead a mission to Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria in the sixties, to increase peaceful trade. Chairman U.S.-U.S.S.R. Trade & Economic Council 1973-1978, chairman Overseas Private Investment Corporation, associated with the Pfizer pharmaceutical fortune, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Scribner, Charles (IV) Jr.
Chairman Charles Scribner's Sons book publishing company 1952-1984, which had been founded by his great-grandfather, personal editor of Ernest Hemingway's works, president American Book Publishers Council, trustee Princeton University.

Scully, Leonard T.
died 1997
Earned both an MBA and a law degree from NYU. During World War II, Scully, who had enlisted in the Army prior to America's entry into the war, was assigned by General Omar Bradley to Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery's staff. In this capacity, he participated in the planning of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. As a member of Bradley's G-5 staff, Scully also served in five campaigns in France, Belgium and Germany. His military honors include the Legion of Merit, a Bronze Star, and the Croix de Guerre. After returning home in1945, Scully became a member of the Army Reserve, serving as acting commander of his unit until retiring in 1965. Scully, who had begun working at the United States Trust Co. of New York in 1934, rejoined the firm after the war, eventually becoming senior vice president. After his retirement in 1975, Scully became president and CEO of Excelsior Income Shares, a subsidiary of the United States Trust Co. Active in many charitable causes, Scully was a former director and assistant treasurer of the Madison Square Boys' Club and its affiliate, the Bronx Boys' Club. He served as president of the Peabody Home at the time of its merger with St. Luke's Home to become Morningside House, and he continued as president of the combined institution for many years. He was a director of the Eye Bank for Sight Restoration and the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies, a former secretary of the Eugene Higgins Scientific Trust, a trustee of the Westmoreland Davis Memorial Foundation, and governor of the Knickerbocker Club; he was also a member of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and the Pilgrims of the United States. In addition, Scully served on committees of the New York City Bar Association, the American Bar Association, the New York State Bankers' Association, and the American Law Institute. A dedicated alumnus, Scully served as treasurer of the New York Columbia Club and was honored with the Alumni Medal from the Alumni Federation in 1961.

Seaborg, Glenn T.
Appeared in the 1969 list of The Pilgrims. Co-discoverer of some 7 nuclear energy isotopes. Co-discoverer or discoverer of 19 elements, including plutonium. Head of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for two years, 1972-1973. Director of the globalist World Future Society and the Federal Radiation Council.

Segal, Martin E.
Born in Vitebsk, Russia in 1916. Founder in 1939 of the Segal Company, pPresident from 1939to 1967, chairman from 1967 to 1991, and consultant since 1991. Segal was a Partner, Wertheim & Co. (New York) from 1967 to 1982, president from 1972 to 1975, and subsequently Chairman from 1975 to 1982 of Wertheim Asset Management Services. Columnist for Associated Press. Chairman of the Public Service Awards Committee, Fund for the City of New York, in 1978 and 1979. In 1979, Mr. Segal was co-chairman of the mission to lay the basis for cultural exchanges between the United States and China via the Center for United States-China Arts Exchange; visited China with the U.S. delegation, as co-chairman, for this purpose (March 8-23, 1979). Mr. Segal served on the Advisory Council of the Center for United States-China Arts Exchange from 1982-1988. He was General Chairman of “Night of 100 Stars II” (first AIDS benefit – The Actors’ Fund of America– held on February 17, 1985). Organizing Co-Chairman of the International Conference on the Future of ArtsEducation – November 11-13, 1999 Fellow of the Fellow of the Royal Society of London. Received many many awards and was very active in a host of New York clubs and not-for-profit institutions.

Seitz, Raymond G.H.
Born in Hololulu , Hawaii. Graduated from Yale in history. After two years spent teaching in Dallas, Texas, he joined the Foreign Service in 1966. His first post was in Montreal, Canada as Consular Officer; in 1968 he was assigned to Nairobi, Kenya as Political Officer, serving concurrently as Vice-Consul in the Seychelles Islands. After two years as Principal Officer in Bukavu, Zaire, Ambassador Seitz returned to the State Department in 1972 and was appointed Director of the Secretariat Staff under Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. He subsequently served as Special Assistant to the Director General of the Foreign Service. In 1975 he was assigned for the first time to the U.S Embassy in London as First Secretary, and in 1978, he received the Director General's Award for Reporting. Returning to Washington in 1979 as Deputy Executive Secretary to the Department of State, Ambassador Seitz served in the office of Secretaries Vance, Muskie and Haig. In October 1981 he became Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. Appointed Executive Assistant to Secretary of State George Shultz from 1981-1984. On completion of his term as Assistant Secretary of State, the Federal Republic of Germany conferred on Ambassador Seitz the Knight Commander's Cross. Minister at the US Embassy in London from 1984-1989, and Assistant Secretary of State for Europe, based in Washington, from 1989-1991. U.S. Ambassador to Britain 1991-1994. He is a trustee of the National Gallery, the Royal Academy of Arts and the World Monuments Fund. He is a member of the Advisory Council of the Institute for International Studies at Stanford University and a governor of the Ditchley Foundation. Senior managing director and vice-chairman of Lehman Brothers International in London. Director of Cable & Wireless, Hongkong Telecom, The Chubb Corporation, General Electric Company plc, Cable and Wireless plc, Hollinger International, The Telegraph Group plc, British Airways, and Rio Tinto plc. Received the Churchill Medal of Honour from the English-Speaking Union. He has written numerous book reviews for the Daily Telegraph, The Times, The Sunday Telegraph, and The Literary Review and broadcast several series of essays for the BBC. In 1999 Seitz became the first American citizen to receive Freedom of the City of London. He was elected as an Honorary Freeman of the Merchant Taylor's Company in 2001. Member of the Trilateral Commission.

Shannon, John
Raised for seven years in Washington, DC, after which his family moved to Paris for five years and Tokyo for another five before settling in New York City in 1971. He graduated from the Lycee Francais de New York in 1973 and received a BA in History from Trinity College, in Hartford, CT. He was a banker in New York for 11 years, working with European clients. Subsequently, he moved away from financial services and went to the non-profit sector. Consultant to the Hereditary Society Community of the United States of America. Since 1994 he has been Executive Director & Almoner of St. George's Society of New York, one of that city's oldest, continuously operating membership organizations, founded in 1770. In addition to organizing regular events for its members, the Society operates a significant charitable program of financial assistance to needy persons living in the New York area who are from the United Kingdom of the British Commonwealth. Additionally Mr. Shannon is President of the College of Arms Foundation, Inc., which was established by the College of Arms in 1984. Mr. Shannon serves as Assistant Secretary of the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies in New York. He is a member of The Pilgrims of the United States; the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society where he serves as Chairman of the Committee on Heraldry; and Saint Thomas Church in New York (where he co-chaired the Every Member Canvass for two years). Mr. Shannon is also a member of The Heraldry Society and the Society of Heraldic Arts, two UK-based organizations that focus on all forms of English heraldry. Former Member of the Council of the New York State General Society of Colonial Wars. Vice President of the St. Nicholas Society of the City of New York. Executive director of the St. George's Society of New York. Officer in the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.

Sherrill, Charles Hitchcock
Trustee New York University, ambassador to Turkey 1932-1933, wrote the books ''Have We A Far Eastern Policy?''(1920) & ''Prime Ministers and Presidents'' (1922), decorated by Italy, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Sweden, Austria, Hungary, Holland, and Czechoslovakia.

Shields, William
exec. committee

Shultz, George P.
born 1920
Born December 13, 1920, in New York City, the son or Birl E. and Margaret Pratt Shultz. Charles Pratt (1830-1891), Margaret's grandfather, became a partner of John D. Rockefeller after merging his oil company with Standard Oil in 1874. His son, Shultz's grandfather, Charles Millard Pratt (1858-1933), was treasurer of Standard Oil and his widow bequeathed their New York mansion, the Charles Pratt House, to the Council on Foreign Relations in 1945, which serves as its headquarters ever since. Birl Earl Shultz (1883-1955), George's father, was a personnel director with the American International Corporation and founded the New York Stock Exchange Institute (November 10, 1955, NY Times, obituary). B.A. degree in economics from Princeton University in 1942. Attended Cap & Gown events, according to Kay Griggs, just as Allen Dulles, Donald Rumsfeld, William Colby, Frank Carlucci, James Baker, and George Griggs (August 3, 2005, Rense). U.S. Marine Corps 1942-1945, attaining the rank of Captain. Faculty member at MIT 1946-1947. At MIT, according to several accounts, Shultz teamed up with the German social engineer Kurt Lewin, who was setting up a psychological research institute there (died in 1947). Lewin emigrated from Germany to the US in 1932 and is said to have been a leading member of the Tavistock Institute (at the very least he served as a source of inspiration to many of their psychiatrists). Taught in both the MIT Department of Economics and the MIT Sloan School of Management 1948-1957. Earned a Ph.D. from MIT in industrial economics in 1949. Chairman of MIT's Industrial Relations Division 1954-1957. Leave of absence in 1955 to serve on President Dwight Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers as a senior staff economist. Joined the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business as professor of industrial relations in 1957 and served as dean of the school from 1962 to 1968. Involved in Nixon's election campaign of 1968. Nixon's Secretary of Labor 1969-1970. One of the main organizers of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council in 1972. Nixon's Secretary of the Treasury 1972-1974. It was during this period that Schultz, along with Paul Volcker and Arthur Burns, supported the decision of the Nixon administration to end the gold standard and the Bretton Woods system. Shultz also regularly played golf with Stephen Bechtel Jr. at Burning Tree. President and director of the Bechtel Group 1974-1982, a privately-held huge construction company strongly linked to the intelligence agencies. Also acted as president of the Bechtel Foundation. Ran Ronald Reagan's election campaign in 1980, together with Bechtel vice-president Caspar Weinburger. Chairman of the President's Economic Policy Advisory Board from 1981-1982. Reagan's Secretary of State 1982-1989. Hosted his good friend Helmut Schmidt at the Bohemian Grove in 1982 and has stayed at Camp Mandalay. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Atlantic Council of the United States. Member National Security Planning Group. Keynote speaker and co-founder of a June 1984 conference on international terrorism sponsored by the Jonathan Institute, an Israeli think tank named after the brother of Netanyahu. Former SAS/MI5 agent Colin Wallace said the institute was a Mossad front. In his opening speech, Shultz claimed that "pre- emptive actions by Western democracies may be necessary to counter the Soviet Union and other nations that... have banded together in an international "league of terror."" This policy of pre-emptive strikes against terrorism would be implemented 20 years later by the Bush-Cheney administration. According to John Perkins, former chief economist and "economic hitman", Shultz functioned as the heir to Robert Strange McNamara (1001 Club) as one of the top figures in the new imperial pyramid of power, which employed the structure of economic hitmen to bleed and crush nations. Examples are the Philippines' Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, and such as the various attacks on Panama, culminating in the 1989 invasion. Then-Secretary of State Shultz once gave a speech in which he threatened the nations present that they had better stay in line, and pay their debts to the IMF. As Secretary of State, he automatically became a honorary member of the Pilgrims Society and gave at least one speech to this club in 1985. In August 1988, while travelling from the airport to La Paz, Bolivia, Shultz's motorcade was bombed, supposedly by drug dealers. There was only material damage. In 1989 he rejoined Bechtel as a director and senior counselor (he still is anno 2005). Director at Gilead Sciences since 1996. Director Fremont Group, Inc. (owned by the Bechtel corporation) and the Charles Schwab Corporation. Chairman of Accenture's Energy Advisory Board. Former member of the Advisory Council of Forstmann Little & Co. (Henry Kissinger, Colin Powell, and Donald Rumsfeld have been other members). Has visited the Trilateral Commission in the 1990s. Teamed up with George Soros in 1998 to promote a series of referenda to legalize narcotics. According to author James Mann, who wrote the Rise of the Vulcans book about Bush's inner Cabinet, Shultz initiated a discussion with George W. in the Spring of 1998, whereby the future President sat down in Shultz's living room on the Stanford University campus, in order to see if he would be the right man for the presidency. At that meeting were Martin Anderson, the former advisor to both Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan; Abraham Sofaer, a former Shultz aide; John Cogan and John Taylor, two economics professors; and Stanford's provost, and Shultz protege, Condoleezza Rice. After the scholars associated with the Hoover Institution indicated that they thought Bush would make a good Presidential choice, Bush invited Shultz, Rice, and Anderson down to Austin, Texas for a follow-up meeting in the Summer. Out of that meeting, which was joined by Dick Cheney and Paul Wolfowitz, came the public decision for Bush to run for President. Soon Richard Perle and Dov Zakheim were holding Monday morning conference calls with Bush. Bush W. became president in 2000, selecting the above individuals as his primary staff members. Initial member of the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq in 2002, a year before that country was invaded. Co-chairman of the economic taskforce for California gubernatorial candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2003. Co-chairman of the Commonwealth Club Centennial meeting in 2003, sponsored by Goldman Sachs and Carnegie Corporation. Anno 2005, Shultz is chairman of J.P. Morgan Chase's International Advisory Council, co-chairman of the Committee on Present Danger (together with James Woolsey), and an advisor to the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (together with Alexander Haig, Lawrence S. Eagleburger, Richard Perle, James Woolsey, and, until recently, Paul Wolfowitz). Honorary director of the Institute for International Economics (headed by Peter G. Peterson. Other directors are Paul Volcker, Maurice R. Greenberg, and David Rockefeller). Member of the Hoover Institution and the American Enterprise Institute New Atlantic Initiative. Shultz's most senior advisor and confidant is Charles Hill, a former diplomat to Israel, the Far East, and to the secretary-general of the UN, who now holds positions at Yale and Stanford. Shultz has been a long time associate of Henry Kissinger.

Sigmon, Robert Leland
b. 1929
Lawyer. Worked at Coudert Brothers in London 1960-1963. In private practice since 1964. Chairman of the Pilgrims of Great Brittain from 1977 to 1994. Vice-president of the Pilgrims of Great Brittain since 1994. Governor of the English Speaking Union 1984-1990. Trustee Magna Carta Trust in London 1984-1994. Member of the European-Atlantic Group (E-AG). Involved with the Council of Independent Colleges. Member of the Council of Management of the British Institute of International Comparative Law (BIICL). Pilgrim and Knight of the Garter, Lord Bingham of Cornhill, is chairman of this council.

Simmons, J. Edward
President Board of Education in the 19th century, president New York Stock Exchange in the 19th century, president Fourth National Bank, president PPR Co., president Water Supply of the City of New York until 1908, president Chamber of Commerce since 1908, attended a February 1908 Pilgrims dinner. As president of the Fourth National Bank he gave a (Pilgrims?) dinner on December 12, 1900, which was attended by J.P. Morgan (Pilgrim) and Charles M. Schwab (Pilgrim). It was at this dinner that Morgan decided to buy Carnegie Steel, of which Schwab was president, and to bring it together with his own steel interests into United States Steel Corporation.

Simon, William Edward
Deputy Secretary of the Treasury 1973-1974. Chairman President's Oil Policy Committee February to December 1973 (oil crisis started in October). Administrator Federal Energy Office since December 1973 and was charged with the responsibility of minimizing the effects of the energy crisis and preventing future crises (decided the oil prices and the distribution). Together with Pilgrim Henry Kissinger he was the most important speaker of the 1974 International Energy Conference. chairman Economic Policy Board since 1974. Chief spokesman of the Ford Administration on economic issues since 1974. Treasury Secretary 1974-1981. Chairman East-West Foreign Trade Board since 1975. Director of Citigroup, Kissinger Associates (since the mid 80s), Halliburton, Power Corporation of Canada, United Technologies, Xerox, INA Corporation, Dart Industries, Heritage Foundation, Hoover Institution, and John D. MacArthur Foundation. William E. Simon served as treasurer of the U.S. Olympic Committee from 1977 to 1981. Identified as a COMEX governor in January 1980. President of the U.S. Olympic Committee 1981-1985, which included the 1984 Games in Sarajevo and Los Angeles. He chaired the U.S. Olympic Foundation 1985-1997, created with the profits of the Los Angeles games, and was inducted into the U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame in 1991. Simon was a member of the Knights of Malta, a Pilgrims Society member, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Sinclair, John J.
Descendant of a crucial Knights Templar family: the Barons of Rosslyn, the Earls of Orkney, and the Earls of Caithness. Sir William St. Clair (1404-1482), the 3rd Earl of Orkney and the 1st Earl of Caithness, eventually built Rosslyn Chapel. John J. Sinclair lived in New York's high society.

Sinclair, William MacDonald
exec. committee
Descendant of a crucial Knights Templar family: the Barons of Rosslyn, the Earls of Orkney, and the Earls of Caithness. William St. Clair (1404-1482), the 3rd Earl of Orkney and the 1st Earl of Caithness, eventually built Rosslyn Chapel. William M. Sinclair was archdeacon of London from 1889 to somewhere in the early 20th century.

Sowden, William
Born in Canada, american parents. After serving with the Atlantic and Pacific fleets, he was (1897-1900) naval attaché in Paris and St. Petersburg. While in Europe he sent numerous reports to the Navy Dept. urging the adoption of new ship designs and gunnery, and in 1902 he wrote to President Theodore Roosevelt criticizing the inefficiency of the navy. His letters had some effect and he was ordered to Washington, serving (1902-1909) with the Bureau of Navigation and (1907–9) as naval aide to the President. After leading (1913-1915) the Atlantic torpedo flotilla he was appointed (1917) rear admiral and president of the Naval War College. In World War I he commanded (1917-1918) U.S. operations in European waters. He again became president of the Naval War College in 1919 and served there until 1922, when he retired. He was made full admiral by act of Congress in 1930. He wrote, with Burton J. Hendrick, "The Victory at Sea" (1920).

Sloane, John
Yale Skull & Bones 1905, vice-president Presbyterian Hospital.

Smith, Olcott Damon
Yale and Harvard law school, partner Day Berry & Howard law firm in 1936, employee Office of General Counsel of the U.S. Navy during WWII, joined Aetna Life & Casualty Co. vice chairman in 1962, chairman Aetna Life & Casualty Co. 1963-1972, , member legal team during the construction of the Millstone Nuclear Power Complex in Hartford, director and chairman of the Greater Hartford Process Inc. (foundation).

Sparks, Sir Ashley
Director and chief of Cunard White Star Line, his daughter married Pilgrim son Harry P. Davison. Sir Ashley went to meet with King George V in 1932 to ask him is he could name one of the cruise ship of his company "Victoria", after a former Queen of England. (although it became the Queen Mary) This is the same company who had built the Mauretania and the Lusitania with the financial backing of the British government.

Speyer, James Joseph
Eldest son of German banker Gustav Speyer, joined his father's banking house Speyer & Co. and was employed in London and Paris, senior member New York branch of Speyer & Co. in 1900, which became Lazard Speyer-Ellissen a few years later, director Bank of Manhattan Trust Company, trustee Guaranty Trust/Central Trust (in 1908), associated with the Warburgs, Schiffs, Whitneys, etc, elected a trustee of the Museum of the City of New York in 1923.

Spiller, Jill
Executive Director The Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York. Was named as a Pilgrims Society member in a 2003 British Memorial Garden event.

Spitzer, Eliot

Sprague, Robert Chapman
Invented the tone control for radio while serving in the Navy, founder (in 1926) president chairman and treasurer Sprague Electric Company, oversaw construction of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lexington (laid down by Morgan's Bethlehem Steel Co. in 1941), chairman Industry Advisory Committee on Electronic Components and Parts 1944-1945, consultant on continental defense to the National Security Council 1954-1958, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 1955-1960, chairman MITRE Corporation 1969-1972, trustee Northeastern University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Life Member Emeritus of the MIT, member Hudson Institute, member Council on Foreign Relations, member Newcomen Society.

Spring-Rice, Sir Cecil Arthur
Agent of King George V. Spring-Rice attended Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, and served in the War Office and Foreign Office, and as Earl Granville's private secretary. He became the British Chargé d’Affaires in Tehran in 1900, and British Commissioner of Public Debt in Cairo in 1901. He went on to serve in St. Petersburg, Russia (1903), Persia (1906), Sweden (1908), and as ambassador to the United States (1912-1918).

Sproul, Allan
Son of a Scottish immigrant. Studied at the University of California. Joined the Federal Reserve banking system. President Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1941-1956. Director Wells Fargo Bank. Director Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical.

Stahel, Julius
Julius Stahel was a Hungarian immigrant who was a journalist in New York City for the German-speaking community before the Civil War. He had previously served in the Austrian army, and at the outbreak of the Civil War he helped to organize the "1st German Rifles." Stahel eventually became a major general in the Union army and received the Congressional Medal of Honor.

Stanley, Edward George Villiers
Also known as the 17th Earl of Derby. The 16th Earl of Derby (1841-1908) married to Lady Constance Villiers, daughter of George William Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon. For generations the family had a strong presence within the conservative party. Educated at Wellington. Joined the Grenadier Guards as a lieutenant and served in that regiment between 1885 and 1895. Secretary of State for War 1916-1918. Secretary of State for War 1922-1924. Honorary president of the Rugby Football League, and donated a cup for the French authorities to use for a knock-out competition. This is now known as the Lord Derby Cup. Chairman of the Pilgrims of Great Britain 1929-1945. President of the Pilgrims of Great Britain 1945-1948. Close friend of King George V.

Stetson, Eugene W., Jr.
Yale Skull & Bones 1934, joined the family's firm Stetson & Company, assistant manager Brown Brothers Harriman of New York (together with Prescott Bush), director Chemical Bank, organized the H. Smith Richardson Foundation (said to have financed a part of the MK-Ultra project).

Stewart, James C.
James Stewart & Company, which was involved in many large construction project including the Savoy Hotel in London (1889), where the Pilgrims would often meet. Also built the Mormon’s capital building in Salt Lake City.

Stillman, Chauncey D.
died 1989
Georgia resident who build an estate on his 1200 acres of land, loved nature, from a very wealthy family, treasurer Catholic Art Association, founder (1939) and long time chairman of the Homeland Foundation (for preserving nature and preserving individual rights)

Stimson, Henry Lewis
Yale Skull & Bones 1888; joined a law firm headed by Elihu Root in 1891; U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York 1906; Secretary of War 1911-1913; joined the military during WWI and fought as an artillery officer in France; governor-general of the Philippines 1927-1929; opposed the independence of many nations because they were not able to govern themselves; Secretary of State under Herbert Hoover 1929-1933; In 1932, after reading an article in the Illustrated London News, he ordered the U.S. Ambassador in Turkey to make a request for an inquiry into the original sources used for the Piri Reis map. The Turkish government complied, but no earlier sources were found; chairman U.S. delegation to the London Naval Conference 1930-1931; chairman U.S. delegation to the Geneva Disarmament Conference 1932; Secretary of War under FDR 1940-1945.

Strathcona, Lord Donald Alexander Smith
Made a fortune, many times over, from investments in land, railways, and banking. He joined the Hudson's Bay Company in 1838, attained the rank of chief factor in 1862, was the company's land commissioner in Manitoba 1870-1874, one of the principal financiers of the Canadian Pacific Railway, major shareholder in Northern Pacific Railroad (together with Pilgrim James J. Hill), major investor in the Bank of Montreal, represented Selkirk, Manitoba in the House of Commons 1871-1880, knighted in 1886, MP for Montreal West 1887-1896, raised to the peerage as Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal in 1897, co-founder of the London Pilgrims 1902, British High Commissioner in Canada. He is possibly best known for equipping and maintaining the celebrated cavalry unit known as Lord Stathcona's Horse during the Boer War (1899-1902). He also promoted educational causes. He was a generous patron of McGill University in Montreal, he founded the Royal Victoria College for women, and was rector and chancellor of the University of Aberdeen. Strathcona's philanthropy, educational interests and imperial enthusiasms converged in 1909 when he established the Strathcona Trust, an endowment intended to promote military drill and physical training in the public schools of Canada. The physical education curriculum in many provinces, including British Columbia, originated with programmes funded by the Strathcona Trust.

Strathmore, Mary
Duchess of York. Very close with the Royal family and her late husband was the Queen Mother's nephew. She is patron or Hon President of the Local Branches of the Multiple Sclerosis Society, Cancer Relief, Age Concern, Nursing Benevolent Fund, the Day Care Committee for the Elderly, she is patron in Scotland of Sense (for deaf blind people), the Brittle Bone Society, the Child Psychotherapy Trust, and Child Link Scotland and is the Chair of the Scottish Disability Foundation Appeals Committee. Patron Queen Mother Research Centre. She plays a large part in promoting Scottish interests. Deputy Lord Lieutenant of Angus in 1989. Honorary Regent for Great Britain on the Kenmore Trust which runs George Washington's Sister's home in Virgina, and was honoured by a flag being flown over the US Capital on July 28th 1997.

Strauss, Elliott Bowman
Graduated from the Naval Academy in 1923. Served on different destroyers until 1934. He returned to Newport for a tour of duty at the Naval Training Station after which, from November 1935 until September 1937, he was Assistant U.S. Naval Attache at the American Embassy, London, England. While there he was a Delegate to the Third Assembly, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, at Edinburgh, in 1936, and on May 12, 1937, was awarded the British Coronation Medal at the coronation of King George VI of England. Upon his return to the United States in the Fall of 1937, he was designated Aide and Flag Lieutenant on the Staff of Rear Admiral Alfred W. Johnson, USN, Commander Training Detachment, U.S. Fleet, and was attached to the flagship, USS New York. Served on another couple of destroyers. He returned to London, England as U.S. Naval Observer just prior to the outbreak of World War II in December 1941, and served on the staff of Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, Chief of Combined Operations, during the early war period, taking part in the Allied raid on Dieppe, August 19, 1942. In November 1943, he reported to Commander U.S. Naval Forces, Europe, and was assigned duty with Task Force One Hundred Twenty two, later serving on the Staff of the Allied Naval Commander in Chief, Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsey, until August 1944. Captain Strauss returned to the United States for duty in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations in 1945. From January to December 1948 he was a student at the Imperial Defense College in London. On August 11, 1952, he was ordered to the Office of the Deputy for Defense Affairs, Office of Special Representative in Europe for Mutual Security Administration, Paris, France. On September 28, 1953, after his retirement in July of that year, he was ordered detached from that assignment, but to continue duty in Paris as Staff Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, Office of Foreign Economic Defense Affairs, with his duty station in the U.S. Mission to NATO and European Regional Organization, Paris. From August 1956 until March 1957, Rear Admiral Strauss was Director of Engineering at Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA. On April 6, 1957, Rear Admiral Strauss was named Chief of the new American Foreign Aide Mission to Tunisia. There he directed a $5.5 million program providing commodities and technical assistance for the rest of the fiscal year ending June 30, a program which in 1958 had risen to more than $20 million, and by the time of his detachment in August 1960, had put more than $100 million into the Tunisian economy. In 1960, he served as personal representative of the Secretary of State as a member of a three-man team to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mutual Aid program to Pakistan, this assignment extended from September 1960 to January 1961. In January 1961, Rear Admiral Strauss initiated, as Director, the A.I.D. mission to the Malagasy Republic and served there until February 1963. He retired from A.I.D. in May 1963. In July 1965, Rear Admiral Strauss became a public member of the Foreign Service Inspection Corps. He was a member of the team inspecting Embassy, Tel Aviv and Consulate General Jerusalem, July--September 1965. Rear Admiral Strauss is a member of the Pilgrims of the United States, the Chevy Chase Club and Army and Navy Club of Washington, DC; the New York Yacht Club; and the Buck's Club, and the International Sportman's Club, both of London, England.

Strong, Benjamin, Jr.
Embarked on a financial career in 1891 with Cuyler, Morgan & Co. Assistant secretary Atlantic Trust Co. Secretary Bankers Trust Co. of N.Y. 1904-1909. Vice president Bankers Trust Co. of N.Y. 1909-1914. President Bankers Trust Co. of N.Y. since 1914. First president/governor NY Federal Reserve Bank 1914-1928 and was a close friend/ business associate of co-Pilgrim and Bank of England governor Montagu Norman. He met in secret with Montagu Norman and Hjalmar Schacht (president Reichsbank; friend Max Warburg) in July 1927.

Stuart, Sir Collin Campbell
Made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1918 when co-Pilgrim Lord Northcliffe was made a Viscount. In February, 1918, the (English) Prime Minister made Northcliffe director of Propaganda in Enemy Countries with Campbell Stuart as his deputy. Managing director of the Times (of Lord Northcliffe) 1919-1923. He later relinquished this position with the Times to become an ordinary director and in 1923 became the representative of the Canadian Government on the Pacific Cable Board. Linking Canada, Australia and New Zealand, this cable had been laid in 1902 across the Pacific Ocean and passing only through British territory was jointly owned by the respective governments. He did well in the job but was not happy at the increasing competition of wireless and cable and he recommended to the Government that the question should be considered by an Imperial Conference. As a result an Imperial Wireless and Cable Conference was set up in London in January, 1928, with Campbell Stuart appointed to represent the Canadian Government. One of the resulting recommendations was to form an Imperial Communications Advisory Committee, to oversee in certain respects the new private corporation that was to come into being, the Cable and Wireless Company, of which Campbell Stuart became Chairman. The role of Campbell Stuart, when asked to set up a propaganda organisation, immediately prior to World War Two, is related in the Department Electra House text and when he resigned from that position he resumed duties with the Imperial Communications Advisory Committee, which was renamed the Commonwealth Communications Council and met in London in April, 1944, with Campbell Stuart as Chairman. As one of the considerations, when Cable and Wireless was nationalised, in 1945, feeling his usefulness was now at an end Campbell Stuart then resigned. Amongst many other appointments he remained an active director of the Times until 1960.

Studd, Sir Kynaston
Royal descent, confidant of the Duke of Westminster (Grosvenor family), Order of the British Empire, president The Polytechnic, Lord Mayor of London 1928-1929 (Which is something different than the normal mayor of London), provincial grand master in Freemasonry 1934-1944.

Sunderland, Edwin Sherwood Stowell
Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell, his daughter Dorothy Joan married co-Pilgrim Charles Scribner Jr., director Jekyll Island (Georgia) Club where the Federal Reserve conspiracy took place, governor Union club (an important New York City club), director Morningside Heights Incorporated, United States Trust Company of New York, Berwind-White Coal Mining, Illinois Central Railroad, Harriman, Ripley & Company, Missouri Pacific Lines and other companies.

Sutherland, Peter Denis
b. 1946
Graduated from University College Dublin. Attorney General of Ireland in the government of Garret FitzGerald. Member of the first Delors (EU) Commission. Chairman Goldman Sachs. Director Asea Brown Boveri. Director of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group. Chairman BP Amoco. Director-general GATT and founding head WTO 1993-1995. Chair Trilateral Commission. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Member European Round Table. Member of the Chief Executive's Council of International Advisors of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), which was established in 1997. Member Liberalization of Trade in Services (LOTIS) committee, an outgrowth of the British Invisibles that controls the WTO. Permanent Bilderberg attendee and a member of its Steering Committee. Director Centre for European Reform. Director European Institute. Member of the Foundation Board DAVOS. Appointed Goodwill Ambassador for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in 2005. Honorary President of the European Movement Ireland. Received the Rockefeller International Leadership Award. Member of the Pilgrims of Great Brittain.

Swope, Gerard
Engineer, businessman, and public official, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He joined Western Electric Co (1895) and became vice-president (1913) in charge of domestic sales and international operations, reorganizing Western Electric's foreign interests. A parallel concern of his was social justice, and in 1897–9 he lived and worked at Hull House in Chicago, marrying a social worker who also worked there. In 1919 he joined General Electric as the first president of its subsidiary International General Electric, where he promoted international corporate support for European reconstruction following World War 1. As president of General Electric (1922), with Owen D Young chairing the board, he recognized a corporation's responsibility to its employees, customers, and the industry. His ‘new capitalism’ vision, called the Swope Plan (1931), became the basis for the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, and he helped implement the New Deal. He headed community chest campaigns, founded the National Health and Welfare Retirement Association, and, retiring in 1939, chaired the New York City Housing Authority. His causes included co-operative housing, health insurance, and Zionism. In 1951 he chaired the Institute of Pacific Relations.

Symington, William Stuart
Enlisted as a private in the United States Army at seventeen years of age and was discharged as a second lieutenant; graduated from Yale University in 1923; reporter on a Baltimore newspaper; moved to Rochester, N.Y., and worked as an iron moulder and lathe operator 1923-1926, studying mechanical and electrical engineering at night and by correspondence; executive with several radio and steel companies 1926-1937; moved to St. Louis, Mo., and became president of the Emerson Electric Manufacturing Co. 1938-1945. In 1945-1946 he was Surplus Property Administrator in Washington, D.C., disposing of unused war materials. From 1947 through 1950 Symington was Secretary of the Air Force. In 1950 he became chairman of the National Security Resources Board, which was suggestive of more recent Presidential Executive Orders authorizing the seizure of commodities in wartime. He was a Senator from Missouri from 1952 to 1976. Symington was a personal friend of Pilgrim Floyd Odlum.

Taft, William Howard
Supposedly traces his lineage to Charlemagne. Son of the co-founder of the Yale Skull & Bones Society. Himself Skull & Bones 1878. Cincinnati Law School 1880. Member Ohio Superior Court 1890-1892. Solicitor-general of the United States 1892-1900. Governor of the Philippines 1901-1904. Secretary of War 1904-1908. President of the United States 1909-1913. Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court 1921-1930. Automatically appointed chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution during his appointment as Chief Justice. Invited to the Bohemian Grove.

Taft, Henry Waters
Son of the co-founder of the Yale Skull & Bones Society. Brother of William H. Taft. Yale Skull & Bones 1880. Supposedly a famed New York lawyer. Six year president of the Japan Society in the 1920s. Awarded the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun.

Taylor, Sir John Wilson
Knight of the British Empire. Member of the management of the American Officers Club.

Taylor, General Maxwell D.
Graduated from West Point in 1922. In World War II he served in Europe with the 82d Airborne Division and as commander of the 101st Airborne Division. After serving as superintendent of West Point (1945–1949) and U.S. commander in Berlin (1949–1951), he commanded UN forces in Korea. From 1955 to 1959 he was army chief of staff, and he argued for an army capable of fighting a limited war. When the Eisenhower administration continued to emphasize U.S. nuclear capability, he resigned; he outlined his views in An Uncertain Trumpet (1959). In 1961, President Kennedy appointed Taylor to the post of military representative to the President, and in 1962 he became chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. He served until 1964, when President Johnson named him ambassador to South Vietnam. While in that post (1964–1965) he urged continued limited U.S. participation in the Vietnam War. Chairman President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory board 1968-1970.

Taylor, Myron Charles
exec. committee
Admitted to the bar in 1895, spent much of his early career in the textile business, operating mills in New England and elsewhere until 1923, at the behest of J.P. Morgan he became a director of United States Steel Corporation, chairman finance committee United States Steel Corporation 1927-1934, chairman United States Steel Corporation 1932-1938, personal representative of the U.S. President to Pope Pius XII 1939-1950, personal representative of the President on Special Missions 1950-1952, member Knights of Malta, member Knight Order of Pius, member Knight Grand Cross of Saints Mauritius and Lazarus. Taylor gave funds to the Episcopal Diocese of New York, director Council on Foreign Relations 1943-1959. In 1939 he became the U.S. envoy to Pope Pius XII, a post he would maintain until 1950.

Thatcher, Margaret
Thatcher served as Education Secretary in the government of Edward Heath from 1970 to 1974, and successfully challenged Heath for the Conservative leadership in 1975. She became Britain Prime-Minister through Brian Crozier's secret Shield committee, which laid out her election campaign. Se was elected 3 times and was Prime-Minister from 1979 to 1990. Her policy was strongly anti-communist and pro-privatization. Thatcher maintained the "special relationship" with the United States, and formed a close bond with Ronald Reagan. Thatcher also dispatched a Royal Navy task force to retake the Falkland Islands from Argentina in the Falklands War. The profound changes Thatcher set in motion as Prime Minister altered much of the economic and cultural landscape of Britain. She curtailed the power of the trade unions, cut back the role of the state in business, dramatically expanded home ownership, and in so doing created a more entrepreneurial culture. Awarded the Order of Merit in 1990. In 1992 she was created Baroness Thatcher; since then her direct political work has been within the House of Lords and as head of the Thatcher Foundation. In 1995 she became a Knight of the Order of the Garter. In July 1992, she was hired by tobacco giant Philip Morris Companies, now the Altria Group, as a "geopolitical consultant" for US$250,000 per year and an annual contribution of US$250,000 to her Foundation. In practice, she helped them break into markets in central Europe, the former Soviet Union, China, and Vietnam, as well as fight against a proposed EC ban on tobacco advertising. Her son Mark has been dogged by a series of controversies. In January 2005 he was fined three million rand (approximately $500,000) and received a four-year suspended jail sentence in South Africa after several months of house arrest, for abetting a coup attempt in Equatorial Guinea.

Thayer, Walter Nelson
Whitney agent and director of Bankers Trust Company of New York. Director of National Dairy Products Corporation. Member of the Lend-Lease Administration in 1941-1942. Assistant to Averell Harriman 1941-1945.

Thomson, Lord Roy Herbert
1st Baron Thomson of Fleet. Chairman of the Thomson Organization. Owned 56 American newspapers and also the London Times. Director of Reuters. Freemason. Spoke to the Empire Club of Canada on January 6, 1972, while David Rockefeller was sitting in the Audience.

Thomson, Kenneth Roy
2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet, Canada’s wealthiest man, added the prestigious Globe and Mail in Toronto to The Times and Sunday Times in Britain and The Jerusalem Post in Israel. Under Kenneth Thomson, who owns a 73-per-cent stake in the company, Thomson Corporation sold its North Sea oil holdings and sold The Times to Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation and the Jerusalem Post to Conrad Black's Hollinger Inc.

Tiarks, Henry Frederick
Son of Frank Cyril Tiarks, once a governor of the Bank of England (under Montagu Norman), a partner and managing director of Schroder's Bank of London, and a member of the Anglo-German Fellowship. Said to have met with occultist/Thulist Alfred Rosenberg when the latter was visiting London on behalf of Hitler. Baron Bruno Schroder's German brother, Kurt, had been instrumental in bringing Hitler to power and was one of his most important bankers. The Schroders were business partners of the Rockefellers since 1936 in the investment firm Schroder Rockefeller & Co.
Henry was a partner in Schroder's Bank in London. His daughter was Henrietta Joan Tiarks. She married Henry Robin Ian Russell, the 14th Duke of Bedford/Marquess of Tavistock. Both were into horse breeding and racing.

Tillinghast, Charles C. Jr.
Graduated from Columbia Law School in 1935, after he graduated he joined the law firm of Hughes, Schurman and Dwight of New York, vice president of Bendix Corp., trustee-appointed president of Howard Hughes' Trans World Airlines 1960, later sued by Howard Hughes who charged Tillinghast and others of conspiring against him in an effort to wrestle Trans World Airlines from him. Didn't work out that well for Hughes. Tillinghast became chairman of TWA and remained that until 1976, became vice chairman of White, Weld and Co. in 1976, chancellor Brown University 1968-1979, vice-president Merrill Lynch, director Seaboard Surety Company, director Merck & Company.

Tower, John Goodwin
Tower left school in the summer of 1943 to serve in the Pacific Theater during World War II on an amphibious gunboat. He returned to Texas after the war in 1946, discharged as a seaman first class, and completed his undergraduate courses at Southwestern University, graduating in 1948 with a B.A. in political science. Tower became the youngest person in the senate in 1961. He was only 36 at the time, and there were 71 candidates in the race, but former Democrat Tower prevailed in the runoff, becoming Texas' first Republican senator since Reconstruction. Considered an ultraconservative, during his 23 years in the Senate, Tower became an authority in matters concerning national defense and the military. As defense spending rose to $211 billion a year, Tower brought prized defense contracts to Texas. In 1981, he became chairman of the Armed Services Committee. In 1984, Tower decided not to seek re-election. He worked instead as a highly-paid defense consultant. In 1985, President Reagan named Tower to the post of strategic arms negotiator with the Soviet Union. The following year, he appointed Tower to chair a bipartisan committee to investigate the Iran-contra scandal. George Bush nominated Tower for Secretary of Defense in 1989, but critics claimed he had too many ties to defense contractors. He also had some trouble with excessive drinking and womanizing. Senator Tower was killed in the crash of Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 2311 in Georgia in 1991. His daughter Marian also died in the crash. Some hold that Tower's plane crash and John Heinz' (a friend of his) the day before are connected to their Iran-Contra investigation. The Times, February 10, 1982:
"The Pilgrims, who promote Anglo-American understanding, have Senator John Tower, chairman of the United States Senate Armed Services Committee, coming to lunch at the Savoy on February 23. Tower, a tough Republican, who won Lyndon Johnson’s seat two decades ago, is a powerful figure, in some senses outranking the well-publicized Secretary of State, Alexander Haig. On the other hand Haig was a general. Tower, the only enlisted reservist in Congress, is still officially a chief petty officer."

Townsend, Lynn Alfred
Business executive, born in Flint, Michigan, USA. A University of Michigan MBA, he worked for accounting firms before joining Chrysler Corp as comptroller (1957). He rapidly moved into Chrysler's international operations, becoming president and chief executive officer (1961-1966), and chairman and chief executive officer (1967-1975).

Trevor, John B.
Partner in investment firm Trevor & Colgate of New York, which was established in 1852. Both Trevor and Colgate were rich men at the time.

Tuckerman, Eliot
hon. treasurer
born 1872
Introduced the game of golf to Stockbridge (N.Y. state), together with Joseph H. Choate Jr. (son of a Pilgrim and Rockefeller attorney), lawyer, member New York State Assembly in 1918, member New York Bar 1918-1919.

Tuttle, Robert Holmes
A California native, Mr. Tuttle graduated from Stanford University and earned his M.B.A. at the University of Southern California. Assistant to President Reagan 1982-1985. President and director of Presidential Personnel, The White House, 1985-1989. Director of Arizona Bank, 1989-1999. Director at City National Corporation. Managing Partner, Tuttle-Click Automotive Group since 1989. Served on the Board of Directors of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars for four years. Tuttle has served on the boards of several prominent civic organizations, including the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library Foundation, the University of Southern California Annenberg School of Communication, and the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art where he was Chairman from 2001 to 2004. Opened the Defense Systems & Equipment International 2005 and gave a speech. US Ambassador to Great Britain since 2005. Governor of the Ditchley Foundation.

Twain, Mark
Mark Twain (pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) was an American writer, journalist and humorist, who won a worldwide audience for his stories of the youthful adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. Clemens was born on November 30, 1835 in Florida, Missouri, of a Virginian family. He was brought up in Hannibal, Missouri. After his father's death in 1847, he was apprenticed to a printer and wrote for his brother's newspaper. He later worked as a licensed Mississippi river-boat pilot. The Civil War put an end to the steamboat traffic and Clemens moved to Virginia City, where he edited the Territorial Enterprise. On February 3, 1863, 'Mark Twain' was born when Clemens signed a humorous travel account with that pseudonym. In 1864 Twain left for California, and worked in San Francisco as a reporter. He visited Hawaii as a correspondent for The Sacramento Union, publishing letters on his trip and giving lectures. He set out on a world tour, traveling in France and Italy. His experiences were recorded in 1869 in The Innocents Abroad, which gained him wide popularity, and poked fun at both American and European prejudices and manners. The success as a writer gave Twain enough financial security to marry Olivia Langdon in 1870. They moved next year to Hartford. Twain continued to lecture in the United States and England. Between 1876 and 1884 he published several masterpieces, Tom Sawyer (1881) and The Prince And The Pauper (1881). Life On The Mississippi appeared in 1883 andHuckleberry Finn in 1884. In the 1890s Twain lost most of his earnings in financial speculations and in the failure of his own publishing firm. To recover from the bankruptcy, he started a world lecture tour, during which one of his daughters died. Twain toured New Zealand, Australia, India, and South Africa. He wrote such books as The Tragedy Of Pudd'head Wilson (1884), Personal Recollections Of Joan Of Arc (1885), A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) and the travel book Following The Equator (1897). During his long writing career, Twain also produced a considerable number of essays. The death of his wife and his second daughter darkened the author's later years, which is seen in his posthumously published autobiography (1924). Mark Twain was present at a February 1908 Pilgrim dinner in New York, as reported by the New York Times. (The newspaper wrote a huge amount of articles about him)

Tweedy, Lawrence
Chairman American Club (in London).

Vance, Cyrus Roberts
Because of his father's early death, Vance spent a decent amount of time with his uncle John W. Davis, a co-founder of the CFR, a Morgan and Rockefeller associate, a past ambassador to England, and an earlier member of the Pilgrims Society. Yale Scroll & Key 1939 (studied law). Yale LL.B. 1942. Married Grace Sloane (Pilgrims daughter). World War II naval gunnery officer 1942-1946. In 1947, Vance worked as an assistant to the president of the Mead Corporation and passed the New York State Bar. Joined the law firm Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett as an associate and partner and served as Presiding Partner for many years. Entered government as associate counsel to the Senate Armed Forces Preparedness Investigation Subcommittee, serving alongside LBJ in 1957. In 1958, Vance was appointed consulting counsel to the Senate Committee on Space and Aeronautics and helped to draft the National Space Act of 1958, which led to the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Secretary of the Army 1961-1963. Deputy Secretary of Defense 1964-1967. U.S. negotiator to the Paris Peace Conference on the Vietnam War 1968-1969. Returned to Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett in 1969. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1968-1973. Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation since at least 1969 and went on to become vice-chairman. Member of the Commission to Investigate Alleged Police Corruption in New York City 1970-1972. In the early 1970s, he served as chairman of the United Nations Association, USA Policy Studies Committee. Vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1973-1976. Attended the first meeting of the Trilateral Commission in 1973 and visited the commission until at least 1978. President of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1974-1976. Has visited Bilderberg. Co-founded Public Agenda in 1975, which did a lot of research on the Soviet Union. Chairman Rockefeller Foundation 1975-1977. Secretary of State 1977-1980. Clashed frequently with hawkish National Security Advisor (and CFR director) Zbigniew Brzezinski over the approach towards Russia. Vance opposed the 1980 attempt to rescue the American hostages in Iran and resigned after the mission failed. Returned again to Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett in 1980. Again director Council on Foreign Relations 1981-1985. Chairman American Ditchley Foundation 1981-1994 (director before that). Started participating in the Williamsburg Conferences in 1981. Co-founder of the The American Austrian Foundation in 1984, together with Pilgrims Society members George Ball, John E. Leslie, and David Rockefeller. Again vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1985-1987. Chairman Japan Society 1985-1993. Attended meetings of the Asia Society. Co-founder of the America-China Society in 1987, together with Henry Kissinger and Robert McFarlane. Chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1988-1990. Co-founded the Financial Services Volunteer Corps in 1990, together with Pilgrims Society executive John C. Whitehead. Henry Kissinger and Paul Volcker became board members of the FSVC, the latter becoming chairman at some point. Head of the United Nations' efforts to negotiate an end to the violence following the dissolution of Yugoslavia 1990-1992. Out of these negotiations came the Vance-Owen Plan, which was seen by many as a way to let the Serbian conquests escalate. Co-chairman Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict in 1994. Trustee The Mayo Foundation. Director IBM, the New York Times Co., General Dynamics, and Lehman's One William Street Fund. Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett has long served as general counsel for Lehman Brothers, Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co. and Coca Cola Co. Honorary Knight Commander of the Civil Division of the Order of the British Empire. Received the Legion d'Honneur of the French Republic, the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun from the Government of Japan, and numerous other awards.

Vanderlip, Frank Arthur
Member American Eugenics Society. U.S. Department of the Treasury 1897-1901. Studied extensively the European public and private financing systems during 1901. President National City Bank 1909-1919 (first bank to go along with the Federal Reserve - James Stillman of the Pilgrims family was chairman at that time). Attended the Jekyll Island meeting in 1910. Founder American International Corporation (AIC) in 1915. Trustee Carnegie Corporation of New York. Director Riggs National Corporation. Director Union Pacific Railroad.

Vaughan II, G. Tully
Tully was born in Denver, Colorado and grew up as an `Army Brat` as his father, Brigadier General W.W. Vaughan, was a career U.S. Army physician. Tully graduated from Kent School, Kent, CT in 1950 and later acquired his B.S. degree in Political Science from the University of Athens, Greece in 1953. In his senior year at Kent School he was in the number five position in the undefeated Kent School eight-man crew, which sailed on the Queen Mary to England where, in the summer of 1950 they competed for and won the Thames Challenge Cup at the Henley Royal Regatta, Henley-on-Thames, England. Mr. Vaughan served with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Greece for three years under the Marshall Plan (JUSMAG) from 1951 to 1953 where, in addition to his regular duties, he became fluent in Greek. Tully was also the head rowing coach for the Hellenic Rowing Club, which was the private rowing club of his Majesty King Paul of the Hellenes. Mr. Vaughan served in the U.S. Army as a commissioned officer from Officer's Candidate School at Fort Benning, GA. He was a Ranger, awarded the Combat Infantry Badge and Combat Jump Wings and was in the third provisional Special Forces unit before they became an official combat special detachment and acquired the Green Beret. After his retirement, Mr. Vaughan became Head Crew Coach for Villanova University in which position he served for many years bringing the crew program from a failing effort of 22 male and female rowers to a successful maximum capacity of over 100 rowers. At the same time, he was a nationally licensed referee for many regattas across the country, as well as executive secretary for the national governing body of rowing-the NAAO. Tully spent the last twenty years promulgating `the freedom of man under the rule of Law` through his activities as Marshall of the Baronial Order of Magna Charta, a world-wide organization of descendants of the twenty-five sureties who were chosen by their peer barons at Runnemede in 1215 to ensure that King John honored the Magna Charta. In his capacity, he also had a seat on the thirteen-member board of trustees of the Magna Charta Trust of England, which is chaired by the Master of the Rolls of England. Mr. Vaughan was a member of various ethnic, patriotic, sporting and genealogical organizations such as Leander Boat Club, Henley, England, Americans of Royal Descent, and Order of the Crown of Charlemagne, Sons of St. George, St. Andrews Society, Sons of the Revolution, Pilgrims of the United States, the Union League of Philadelphia, the Nassau Club and the Penn Club.

Vokey, Richard Snow
Vice chairman of Hill, Samuel & Company, member of the council of the Ditchley Foundation.

Volcker, Paul A.
Volcker was born on September 1927 in Cape May, New Jersey. He earned a bachelor of arts degree, summa cum laude, from Princeton in 1949, and a master of arts degree in political economy and government from the Harvard University Graduate School of Public Administration in 1951. Research assistant in the research department of the New York Fed during the summers of 1949 and 1950. Pilgrims Society member and later Rockefeller Foundation vice-chair Robert Vincent Roosa was his mentor there, and Paul Volcker became part of his 'Brain trust', or 'Roosa bloc' in the following years. Volcker would also become a member of the Pilgrims Society. From 1951 to 1952, he was Rotary Foundation Fellow at the London School of Economics (Rotary International and the Lions Clubs are still seen today by some as the most important recruiting centers for the Masonic movement). He returned to the New York Fed as an economist in the research department in 1952, and special assistant in the securities department from 1955 to 1957. Financial economist at Chase Manhattan Bank 1957-1961. Director of the Office of Financial Analysis at the Treasury 1962-1963. Deputy Undersecretary for Monetary Affairs at the Treasury 1963-1965. Rejoined Chase Manhattan as vice president and director of forward planning 1965-1968. Undersecretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs 1969-1974. Senior fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University for the 1974-1975 academic year. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1975-1979 & 1988. President Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1975-1979. On July 26, 1979 the New York Times stated: "David Rockefeller, the chairman of Chase, and Mr. Roosa were strong influences in the Mr. Carter decision to name Mr. Volcker for the Reserve Board chairmanship." Chairman Federal Reserve System 1979-1987. Identified by BND officer Hans Langemann as a person who attended the December 1, 1979 meeting of Le Cercle in the Madison Hotel in Washington. Others that attended the meeting were the German Karl-Heinz Narjes (Bundestag; soon went to the ECC), William Colby (the recently retired CIA director at the time), Ed Feulner (president of the Heritage Foundation), Julian Amery (later chairman of Le Cercle; Privy Councillor; father was one of the closest Rothschild allies in building up Israel), and Jean Violet (French intelligence officer; Habsburg employee; Le Cercle co-founder and chairman; Fascist militant before WWII). Volcker became a member of the advisory board of Power Corporation in 1988 and is a friend to Canadian Paul G. Desmarais, Sr., a Privy Councillor and controlling shareholder of Power Corporation since 1968 (Desmarais and the Belgian Albert Frère jointly own about half of the major industries in France and Belgium, including Suez, Société Générale, Total, Imerys, and Groupe Bruxelles Lambert). Director of Prudential Insurance 1988-2000. Chairman of Wolfensohn & Co. in New York 1988-1996. North American chairman of the Trilateral Commission 1991-2001. Chairman of the newly created J. Rothschild, Wolfensohn & Company from March 1992 to 1995, Wolfensohn & Co.'s London-based joint venture. Visited Bilderberg in 1997. Attended meetings of the Ditchley Foundation and has chaired some of them. Advisor to the Japan Society and the International House. Member of the advisory board of Hollinger, together with Henry Kissinger, Richard Perle, and Zbigniew Brzezinski. Director of UAL Corporation, Bankers Trust New York Corporation, and Nestle, S.A. Director United States/Hong Kong Economic Cooperation Committee. Public member of the Board of Governors of the American Stock Exchange American Stock Exchange. Honorary trustee of the Aspen Institute. American Council on Germany, and the American Assembly. Co-chairman of the advisory board of Leadership Forum International and a principal of the Council for Excellence in Government. Member Circle of Presidents RAND Corporation, which means he has donated at least tens of thousands of dollars if not millions. Trustee International Accounting Standards Committee. Honorary chairman Financial Services Volunteer Corps, a firm founded by Cyrus Vance and John C. Whitehead in 1990. Honorary chairman Committee to Encourage Corporate Philanthropy. Chairman Independent Inquiry Committee into the Oil-For-Food program, which also employed Rockefeller’s granddaughter, attorney Miranda Duncan. Chairman board of trustees Group of Thirty (2005). Paul Volcker is a visitor of the Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. Director of the United Nations Association of the United States of America 2000-2004. Director of the Fund for Independence in Journalism. Wrote the foreword of George Soros' 2003 book 'The Alchemy of Finance'. Director of the Institute for International Economics, Washington, headed by Peter G. Peterson. Other directors of the institute are Maurice R. Greenberg and David Rockefeller. Trustee of the American Assembly anno 2005, together with Admiral Bobby Ray Inman (former NSA head; director SAIC; Bohemian Grove; CFR; Trilateral Commission), David Gergen (Bohemian Grove; CFR; Trilateral Commission), and Frank A. Weil (governor Atlantic Institute; CFR). The American Assembly is sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation.

Vreeland, Edward Butterfield
Studied law, admitted to the bar in 1881, became president of the Salamanca Trust Co. (later First Tier Bank & Trust) in 1891 and remained active until his death at the company, congressman 1899-1913 and worked together with the heavily corrupt Nelson Aldrich in establishing the Federal Reserve, vice chairman National Monetary Commission 1909-1912, chairman Committee on Banking and Currency in 1913 when the FED finally was established.

Vreeland, Herbert Harold
Brother of co-Pilgrim Edward Butterfield Vreeland, chairman Welfare Department of the National Civic Federation. Wrote some books and papers in the first half of the 20th century.

Wade-Gery, Sir Robert
Joined the Diplomatic Service in 1951 and served in Bonn, Tel Aviv, Saigon, Madrid and Moscow, as well as in London. Deputy secretary of the Cabinet from 1979 to 1982. High commissioner to India 1982-1987. Chairman of the board of governors of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, since 1990. Honorary treasurer of the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Chairman of the Anglo-Spanish Society. Director of BZW Barclay since 1987, Barclays former investment arm. Vice-chairman of BZW Barclay 1994-1999. Member of the The International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.

Walker, Sir David
From 1982 to 1988 he was the executive director of the Bank of England and remained as a non-executive director at the Bank until early 1993. From 1988 to 1992 he was chairman of the Securities and Investments Board, the British authority that regulates the securities markets; deputy chairman of Lloyds Bank PLC; chairman and CEO of Morgan Stanley and Dean Witter Europe; chairman of the London Investment Banking Association; director of Reuters Holdings PLC, member of the Advisory Board of Xfi Corporation.

Warburg, Paul Moritz
Son of Moritz Warburg. Daugther of Charlotte Esther Oppenheim. Brother of Max (resided in Germany until the last moment) and Felix (came with Paul to the United States). Partner of the German-Jewish Warburg banking house M.M. Warburg and Co. in 1895. Came to the U.S. in 1902. Became a Partner of Jacob Schiff and Otto Kahn in Kuhn Loeb & Company and teamed up with Senator Aldrich to set up the Federal Reserve Bank (all these people were Pilgrims). Went to the Jekyll Island meeting 1910. Naturalized citizen in 1911. Member Federal Reserve Board of Governors 1914-1916. Vice chairman Federal Reserve Board of Governors 1916-1918 (resigned after investigation revealed that his brother was at the head of Germany's secret service and after it had been proven that he was affiliated with the Communist Party). Order of the British Empire. Founding director of the Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1932.

Warburg, Sir Siegmund George
Son of George Warburg. Grandson of Sigmund Warburg, who ran the German M.M. Warburg & Co. with his brother Moritz, father of Max (supported Lenin; advisor Kaiser; IG Farben; friend Hjalmar Schacht), Paul (partner Kuhn, Loeb; married Nina Loeb; established FED), and Felix Warburg (partner Kun Loeb; married Frieda Schiff), Fritz, and Aby. Siegmund arrived in Britain in 1934, realising there could be little hope for a happy union between the Nazi regime and the German Jewish banking community. According to The Independent of November 13, 2002, Siegmund "was a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany and trained at Rothschild." Sir Siegmund founded SG Warburg merchant bank with Henry Grunfeld in 1946. The bank became Britain's top investment bank in just under 50 years before it was swallowed up by the Swiss Bank Corporation in 1995. He was a partner of Kuhn, Loeb and his firm SG Warburg and Co. represented Kuhn, Loeb in London. Sir Siegmund was most famous for having initiated the first hostile takeover bid, when he masterminded the acquisition of the British Aluminium Company in 1958. He is also credited with the invention of the Eurobond market. Siegmund went to live in Switserland. In the 1950's, he hired a man named Christopher Burney, a British spy captured in France during the war who had been imprisoned in Buchenwald for over a year. After the war, Burney wrote a book about his experiences called 'The Dungeon Democracy' that outraged the Jewish community. Although Burney condemned German barbarism, he didn't glorify the Jewish inmates either and showed how badly they had behaved under inhuman conditions. Siegmund knew thousands of people, yet the inner man remained veiled. As Lord Roll noted, "This created a certain aura of mystery round him and led to his becoming a near-legend in his lifetime." Photos never graced S. G. Warburg reports or brochures, which were printed on plain paper. No firm was more reticent. When he granted an interview to the Sunday Telegraph in 1970, it was such a novelty that the paper trumpeted. "Sir Siegmund Warburg speaks." He has seemingly never been photographed with his almost 40-year business partner Henry Grunfeld. Siegmund opposed Likud in 1977. His physician Dr. Carl Heinz Goldman said; "Siegmund was a deeply unhappy and lonely man. He was often plagued by suspicion and contempt of other human beings. He was a hard critic of his colleagues and didn't get on with anybody. He had a fear of office intrigues and came to me to unload his worries. He was completely egocentric and fundamentally conceited. He thought most other people were fools." He was a militant anti-smoker who habitually used tantrums to intimidate people. He was knighted in 1966.

Warburg, George
Son of the legendary Sir Sigmund Warburg and a
non-executive director of the Oceans tug boat subsidiary.

Ward, George Gray
Vice-president and General Manager of Commercial Cable Company in the early 20th century. It was laying down the first international phone lines.

Ward, Harry E.
exec. committee
born 1879
Chairman of Irving Trust Company, director American Enka Corporation, F.W. Woolworth Company, Union Dime Savings Bank and J. Walter Thompson Company (advertising), trustee National Industrial Conference Board, trustee Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Ward was an advisor to the American Institute of Banking, 1936-1939.
Seemingly another Harry Ward: Methodist clergyman, founder and chairman of the ACLU 1920-1940, chairman American League for Peace and Democracy 1934-1940, openly communist. (1873-1966)

Ward, Nicholas Donnell
Nicholas Donnell Ward, the son of Frances Xavier and Sarah D. Ward, was born in New York City. Mr. Ward was graduated from Trinity School, and earned his A.B. at Columbia Universtiy in New York City. He then completed his graduate work at Georgetown University Law Center, earning an LL.B. Consultant to the Hereditary Society Community of the United States of America. Registrar General of the Order of the Crown in America and the National Society Americans of Royal Descent. Former member of the Board of Managers of the Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York. Former President General of the General Society of the War of 1812. Former president of the Aztec Club of 1847. Former Governor General of the Hereditary Order of the Descendants of Colonial Governors. Former Treasurer General of the Order of the Crown of Charlemagne in the United States of America. Former Keeper of the Exchequer of the Military Order Of the Crusades. Former Governor of the District of Columbia of the General Society of Mayflower Descendants. Former Treasurer General Order of Americans of Armorial Ancestry. Member or leading figure in a bunch of other societies. Officer Companion of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem. Former Chancellor of the Grand Priory of the United States of the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem. Knight of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. Chevalier of the Ordo Sancti Constantini Magni. Mr. Ward is currently a member of a number of professional organizations, including the Lawyers Club and The Councillors. He is the former President of the The Barristers and is a former State Chair of the American College of Trust and Estate Counsel. Socially, Mr. Ward holds membership in the Chevy Chase Club (Chairman of the Art Committee); the Metropolitan Club of Washington, D.C. (Member of the Library Committee); Cosmos Club (former Secretary); Union Club of New York; and Newport Reading Room. In addition, he is a former President of the City Tavern Club. Mr. Ward also holds membership in the Pilgrims of the United States, Saturday Night Dinner Dances, and serves as Secretary-Treasurer of The Georgetown Assembly.

Warren, Louis Bancel
Director of Chrysler. Trustee Homeland Foundation. Director English Speaking Union. President American Ditchley Foundation. Knight of Malta.

Watson, Lord Alan
exec. committee
Alan Watson is Chairman of Burson Marsteller Europe and Chairman of CTN (Corporate Television Networks). He advises many major UK and international companies on their communication strategies and has recently become Non-Executive Chairman to the wine importer Raisin Social. He is Chairman of the Coca-Cola European Advisory Board. His business career began with four years as CEO of the advertising agency, Charles Barker City. In broadcasting Alan became a BBC General Trainee after Cambridge, and later a regular presenter with “The Money Programme” on BBC2 and “Panorama” on BBC1. He also reported on LWTV, Radio 4 and the BBC World Service and has written and presented award winning documentaries over many years. He is a Fellow and former Chairman of the Royal Television Society. From 1976 to 1980 he was responsible for Media at the European Commission. He is International Chairman of the English Speaking Union and Chairman of the Council of Commonwealth Societies and a member of the Executive Committee of the Pilgrims. He has just been appointed Co-Chair of the Jamestown 1607 – 2007 British Committee. Additionally he is a member of the Prince of Wales Business Leader’s Forum. Internationally he has served on the Executive Board of UNICEF (UK) and as a member of European Parliament’s High Level Group on Romania. In 2004 he was awarded the Commander’s Grand Cross of the Romanian Order of Merit. Alan holds a range of visiting and honorary posts at Universities in Britain and abroad. For six years he was Chairman of Governors at Westminster College, Oxford. He is a Visiting Fellow at Oriel College Oxford, an Honorary Fellow at Jesus College Cambridge and Chairman of the Cambridge University Chemistry Advisory Board. He is also an Honorary Professor at Birmingham University and a Trustee of the American International University in London. He chairs the Cambridge 800th Anniversary Interim Committee. Abroad, he has received an Honorary Doctorate from St Lawrence University USA, a Visiting Professorship at Leuven, Honorary Professorships from St Petersburg University and Korea University and is a Trustee of the Great Britain Study Centre at Berlin’s Humboldt University. His publications include “Europe at Risk”, “The Germans: who are they now?” and “Thatcher and Kohl: Old Rivalries Revisited”. A former President of the Liberal Party, he was appointed CBE in 1985 and created a Life Peer in 1999 sitting in the House of Lords as a Liberal Democrat where he is a Front Bench Spokesman for Foreign & Commonwealth Affairs. In 1995 he received the German Order of Merit for his “significant and enduring contribution” to understanding between Germany and Britain. In 2001 he was promoted to the Grand Cross of the Order. He is British Chairman of the Königswinter Anglo-German Conference and President of the British German Association. He is a Patron of the Richmond Society and of the Richmond Museum, Chairman of the Father Thames Trust and Chairman of the Arcadia Advisory Board and Patron of The Richmond in Europe Association. Lord Watson is married and has two sons. He was educated at Diocesan College Preparatory School Cape Town, Kingswood School Bath and Jesus College Cambridge. He lives in Richmond and Somerset. He spoke at the OECD Forum 2005.

Watson, Thomas J. Jr.
Eldest son of Thomas J. Watson, the founder of IBM, known to have struggled throughout his life with depression, earned a business degree from Brown University in 1937, and worked a few years as an IBM salesman. In May of 1956 Watson Jr. was named CEO of the company. Only six weeks later his father died. Thomas Jr. took the single biggest risk in IBM's history when he decided to make all of its previous computer software (and hardware, for that matter) obsolete, by developing a uniform range of new IBM mainframe computers. The new machines were compatible within the range—i.e., they could run the same software and use the same peripherals—but incompatible with the former mainframes. The new series, called the System/360, almost completely bankrupted the entire company; its highly successful launch in 1964 was called by Fortune magazine "IBM's $5 Billion Gamble". That same year, because of this success, Dwight D. Eisenhower at the New York World's Fair awarded Thomas J. Watson Jr. the Medal of Freedom, the highest award a U.S. President can bestow on a civilian. Watson was CEO of IBM from 1956 to 1971 and became a US ambassador to the Soviet Union 1979-1981. He also was a trustee of the China Institute and was called by Fortune Magazine “the most successful capitalist who ever lived” (1976) He was a member of the Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay, the 1001 Club and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Watson, Arthur K.
Younger brother of Thomas Watson, Jr., president IBM World Trade Corp., vice-president Far East-America Council of Commerce & Industry, chairman International Chamber of Commerce 1967-1969, became ambassador to France in 1970.

Webster, Bethuel M.
President Association of the BAR of New York 1952-1954, Partner of Webster Sheffield Fleischmann Hitchcock & Chrystie, senior partner Webster Sheffield law firm, trustee Ford Foundation and chairman Finance Committee of the Ford Foundation at least during the sixties (working with all kinds of heavyweights), appointed by president Johnson in 1965 to resolve a crisis between British Honduras and Guatemala, member Lawyers Committee on Supreme Court Nominations in 1968, had a talk with Columbia University about the Carnegie Corporation, chairman Drug Abuse Council in 1980, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Weston, Sir John
Foreign Office officer 1962-1998. United Kingdom Ambassador to NATO 1992-1995. Ambassador to the United Nations, sitting on the Security Council, 1995-1998. Non-executive director of BT Group plc from 1998 to 2002. Director of Rolls-Royce since 1998. Governor of the Ditchley Foundation. Non-executive director of Hakluyt & Co Ltd., a private intelligence group set up and managed by former or present MI6 agents. Member of the the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Honorary President of the Community Foundation Network (UK). Chairman of Governors of Sherborne School, and Honorary Fellow of Worcester College Oxford. Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Wheeler, General Joseph
West Point 1859. Rose during the American civil war from a (Confederate/Southern) first lieutenant to a lieutenant general. Congressman from Alabama 1881-1899. From 1886 through 1900 General Wheeler was a Smithsonian Institution regent. Donned the blue as a major general of volunteers in the war with Spain in 1891. Involved in military actions in Cuba in 1898 and the Philippines from 1899 to 1900. Became a United States Brigadier General in 1900. Co-founded the British Pilgrims in 1902 by approaching and invited guests for their first Pilgrims dinner. Worked closely with Sir Harry Brittain in doing this. New York Times on July 18, 1918: "The idea originated with an American. The name "Pilgrim" was suggested by Mr. Burke Roche, M.P. The plan of organization was submitted in June, 1902, to Lord Roberts through General Joseph Wheeler..."

Wheeler, Post
Secretary at the embassy in Petrograd (st. Petersburg) 1909-1911. Ambassador to London and Tokyo.

White, Henry
Attended a London Pilgrims dinner on March 2, 1903. Diplomat who served several presidents in a variety of positions. Known as the first professional American diplomat. Ambassador to Italy and France, representative at Algeciras Conference of 1906. This was a secret conference to negotiate a dispute amongst Germany, England, and France over the division of Morocco.

White, James G.
Founder and chairman of J.G. White Engineering Corporation, involved with the American-Russian Industrial Syndicate Inc. (money came from the Guggenheim Brothers) to help the Bolshevik's economy in 1919. In 1930 the company was sent to Ethiopia by the US government to conduct a survey on a possible future project, involved with building an aeronautical research and development center at Langley at the brink of WWII, involved with business in China together with the Morgan Company around 1946. Little info available for such a large international firm, but one it's board members was co-Pilgrim Thomas W. Lamont.

Whitehead, John C.
b. 1922
Born in 1922. In 1924, his family moved to New Jersey. After graduating from Haverford College in 1943 with a degree in economics, Whitehead served in the U.S. Navy, participating in the invasions of Normandy, Iwo Jima and Okinawa during World War II. MBA from Harvard Business School in 1947. Became a junior statistician at Goldman, Sachs & Co. in 1947. Named a partner in Goldman Sachs in 1956. President of the Hardvard Business School Club in 1969. Chairman of the Securities Industry Association 1972-1973. Member CFR since the 1970s. Co-chairman and senior partner of Goldman Sachs 1976-1984. International Dinner Chair of the Hardvard Business School Club in 1979. Visited the Trilateral Comission in the 1980s. President of the International Rescue Committee (IRC) in the 1980s, for which he has traveled to Hungary, Pakistan, the Sudan, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam. Today a honorary chairman of the IRC, while Tom Brokaw and Winston Lord are chairmen of the Board of Overseers, and Madeleine Albright, Maurice Greenberg, Henry Kissinger, Felix Rohatyn, and James Wolfensohn are directors of the Board of Overseers. Avid supporter and fundraiser for President Reagan. Deputy Secretary of State under George Shulz 1985-1989. Became a limited partner of Goldman Sachs in 1989. Trustee of the Brookings Institution 1989-1992. Chairman of AEA Investors Inc. of New York 1989-1998, which was founded in 1968. Originally AEA Investors was named American European Associates, bundling together the Rockefeller, Mellon and Harriman family interests with S.G. Warburg & Co. Vicent A. Mai, a close collaborator of Whitehead in organizations like the United Nations Association, the International Rescue Committee, and the Asia Society, became CEO of AEA in 1989 and chairman in 1998. Director of the New York Stock Exchange. Founded the Financial Services Volunteer Corps (FSVC) in 1990, together with co-Pilgrims Society member Cyrus Vance, who has represented the Rockefeller interests for a long time. Paul Volcker has been among the chairmen of the FSVC, which describes itself as "a not-for-profit, private-public partnership whose mission is to help build sound banking and financial systems in transition and developing countries." Henry Kissinger is a director of the FSVC. Chairman of the Brookings Board of Trustees 1992-1994 and honorary trustee since. Created the John C. Whitehead Fund for Not-for-Profit Management at Harvard Business School in 1993. Frequent visitor of Bilderberg in the 1990s. Chairman United Nations Association of the United States (UNA-USA) since at least 1995 to 1998. January 5, 1996, New York Times: "He [Whitehead] promptly sent off a check for $44 to Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali with a note explaining that that was what he and his wife and eight children owed. "As an American citizen I have become more and more embarrassed that my country refuses to pay its dues to the United Nations," wrote Mr. Whitehead, who is chairman of the United Nations Association of the U.S.A... In his letter to Mr. Whitehead, Peter C. Goldmark Jr., the president of the Rockefeller Foundation, wrote, "I'm a three-child man myself, so my check to the U.N. is a little lower than yours -- $22 to be exact. But I've sent it off today upon learning of what you did."" Director of the United States Fund for UNICEF. Class C director of the New York Federal Reserve 1995-1996. Chairman of the New York Federal Reserve 1996-1999, and was succeeded by co-Pilgrims Society member Peter G. Peterson. Vice-chairman United Nations Association of the United States since 1998. On April 11, 2001 Whitehead was photographed at the United Nations Association, standing behind Henry Kissinger, who is invited to speak at the UNA-USA, and Lord Jacob Rothschild, who decided to accompany Kissinger. Chairman of the Goldman Sachs Foundation, which was founded in 1999. Founding chair of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation 2001 - May 2006, the organization responsible for the rebuilding and revitalization of Lower Manhattan after the 9/11 disaster. Honorary chairman of the Asia Society. February 23, 2006, Asia Society introduction by Richard Holbrooke (Pilgrims Society): "Our two former chairmen, both dear friends of mine for many, many years, Roy Huffington and John Whitehead..." Three members of the Rockefeller family gave a speech at this gathering. April 21, 2005, Forbes, 'Greenberg Supporters Rally': "Last month Maurice R. "Hank" Greenberg resigned under pressure from his role as CEO and chairman of American International Group, the company he led for more than four decades. He is currently under investigation by New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer for his role in an allegedly bogus deal by AIG with General Re, a unit of Berkshire Hathaway, to bulk up AIG's balance sheet. The truth of Greenberg's involvement in the deal won't be known for months--or maybe years. But his friends in the business and international relations communities--while not speaking to Spitzer's charges-- are stepping forward now to talk [positively] about Greenberg... John Whitehead... Peter G. Peterson... Henry Kissinger... Richard N. Haass..." Founding chairman of the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation in 2004, and recruited as directors four former U.S. presidents, Maurice R. Greenberg, Henry R. Kravis (Bohemian Grove), David Rockefeller, Jerry I. Speyer (big Rockefeller guy), Peter G. Peterson (Pilgrims; Blackstone Group), Anne M. Tatlock (gone from her WTC on the morning on 9/11), Sir John Bond (HSBC; Multinational Chairman's Group), Michael Eisner (Sun Valley Meetings), and Richard D. Parsons (Rockefeller guy; Sun Valley Meetings). January 5, 2005, New York Times: "After three powerful New Yorkers turned down the chairmanship [of the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation] last spring, it seemed that the fund-raising goal was so daunting that no one would take on the task. So John C. Whitehead, the very well-connected chairman of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, set about building the board from scratch in early summer." Honorary chairman of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, a role now fulfilled by Anne M. Tatlock. Chairman emeritus of the Trustees Council of the National Gallery of Art. Co-chair Greater New York Councils of the Boy Scouts. Served on the Senior Advisory Board of the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution, on which Jack Kemp (Bohemian Grove) has also served. Overseer at the Watson Institute. Director and/or former director of Rockefeller University, the Nature Conservancy, J. Paul Getty Trust, the Outward Bound, the National Humanities Center, the Lincoln Center Theater, the East-West Institute, and the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships. Vice president and member of the Executive Committee of the Pilgrims Society anno 2006. Nancy D. Whitehead, John's wife, is a prominent former national network news correspondent and the founder of Television Corporation of America. She began her journalism career as a producer of CBS News in 1956 and became the network's first female Washington correspondent in 1960. She died in 1997.

Whitman, Charles S.
exec. committee
Freemason. Republican Governor of New York 1915-1918. President American Bar Association.

Whitney, Eli Debevoise
Son of Thomas Debevoise (associate of Winthrop Aldrich) and Anne Whitney of the Whitney branch of the Standard Oil fortune, Yale 1921, trustee of Rockefeller University since 1954, trustee of the William Nelson Cromwell Foundation, trustee of Sullivan & Cromwell, director of the Bank of New York, Saint Joe Minerals, Westvaco Corporation, director of the International Commission on Jurists and was a delegate to many annual meetings over the entire world, chairman of the Enemy Alien Hearing Board in New York City 1942-1945, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Whitney, John "Jock" Hay
Grandson of Secretary of State John Hay. Son of Payne Whitney (1876-1927) (Skull & Bones 1898). He himself Scroll & Key. Partner in Selznick International Pictures (1935) with David O. Seznick (brought Hitchcock to the US). Owned Whitney Communications, J.H. Whitney & Company, and Whitcom Investment Company. International polo star. Broadway and Hollywood financier. With the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Whitney joined Nelson Rockefeller and others in forming what eventually became the U.S. Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. Served as an intelligence officer during World War II and ended up in a POW camp for 18 days (escaped). Established the John Hay Whitney Foundation in 1946. Became a leading thoroughbred horse breeder and collector of art. Was chairman of the Museum of Modern Art in the 1950s (trustee since 1931), which was established and managed by the Rockefeller family. Became a force in Republican politics in the post-war years. Elected to Yale Corporation in 1955 and gave $30 million to Yale over next 25 years. Trustee of the Carnegie foundation. Member of the New York Banking Board in the 1960’s. Chairman of Freeport Sulphur Company. Director Great Northern Paper Company. Ambassador to Great Britain 1957-1961 after donating $47,000 to Ike. Had a Medical Library named after him. Acquired control of the New York Herald Tribune in 1958 and served as its publisher from 1961 to 1967. When the Pilgrims and English Speaking Union organized a dinner in November 1965 in New York, John was one of a handful who got to dance with Princess Margaret (Nelson Rockefeller was another one), the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II. Chairman of the English-Speaking Union (1961). While Ambassador to Britain, Whitney set up a press service in London called Forum World Features, which published propaganda furnished directly by the CIA and the British intelligence services. In 1967 an expose in the NY Times revealed that the John Hay Whitney Trust for Charitable Purposes had been used as a conduit for CIA funds. Prominent member of what Ike called "the military-industrial complex." Estimated personal worth: $200-$300 million. Total benefactions: $50 million. Inherited $20 million trust from his Father and was left $20+ million in his mother's will. His financial advisor during the 1960s and 1970s was John Train. Captain Vincent Astor was his Brother-in-law. Received the Order of the British Empire. Major heir to the Standard Oil fortune. Member Council on Foreign Relations.

Wickersham, George Woodward
U.S. Attorney General under William Howard Taft 1909-1913. Head Selective Service for New York district 1917-1918. Co-founder of the large law firm Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft. Trustee University of Pennsylvania 1920-1926. President American Law Institute 1923. Chairman National Commission on Law Observance and Law Enforcement 1929. Chairman executive committee of the France-America Society. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1933 and its president 1933-1936. Pilgrims Society member. In 1923, together with a Supreme Court justice, he founded the League of Nations Non-partisan Association (LNA). In 1943 this group would change its name into the American Association for the United Nations (AAUN). The AAUN was dominated by Pilgrims and Rockefeller interests and became known as the United Nations Association.

Wiggin, Albert Henry
At age seventeen, he went to work for a Boston bank and in 1892 he married Jessie Duncan Hayden with whom he had two daughters. By his early thirties, Wiggin was already a vice-president at National Park Bank in New York City. He gained recognition as one of the up-and-coming in the Wall Street banking community for his role in organizing Bankers Trust. Vice president Chase National Bank 1904-1911. President Chase National Bank 1911-1917. Chairman Chase National Bank 1917- 1932. In 1923, Wiggin opened a Chase National Bank representative office in London, England which began lending directly to governments and businesses throughout Europe. Beginning in September of 1929, Wiggin had begun selling short shares in Chase National Bank. His short selling, done secretly through several companies owned by himself and family members, helped drive down his own bank's stock price and he made a multi-million dollar profit. On October 24, 1929, the great depression began. At that time, Wiggin was lauded as a hero for his actions trying to stop the stock market from crashing (until it came out in 1932 he had been selling these shares). In 1930, Chase National Bank acquired the Equitable Trust Company, whose major stockholders were the Rockefellers. Winthrop W. Aldrich, Rockefeller's brother-in-law and the son of Nelson W. Aldrich, became president (1930-1932) and later succeeded Wiggin as chairman of the board in December 1932. In 1933, the former president of the Davison Chemical Company, C. Wilbur Miller, filed suit against James C. Bruce (Pilgrims; Robert the Bruce descendant; Chase until 1931), Albert H. Wiggin (Pilgrims) of the Chase National Bank, and others, alleging that they conspired to wreck his company because he refused to merge it with Rio Tinto Ltd. of England (New York Times, Jun. 28, 1933.), a company associated with the Rothschilds. Wiggin has been involved with companies as American International Corporation; American Express Company; American Locomotive Company; American Railway Express Company; American Sugar Refining Company; American Surety Company; American Woolen Company; Armour & Company; Astor Safe Deposit Company; Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Company; Chase-Harris Forbes Corporation; Chase National Bank; Chase Securities Corporation; Coca-Cola Company; Duquesne Light Company; Discount Corporation of New York; Fidelity Phoenix Fire Insurance Company; General Shareholding Corporation; Great Falls Power Company; Greenwich Guaranty Safe Deposit Company; Greenwich Savings Bank; Greenwich Trust Company; Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Company; Inspiration Consolidated Copper Company; Interborough Rapid Transit Company; International Agricultural Corporation; International Motor Company; International Paper Company; Lawyers Title & Guaranty Company; Lawyers Trust Company; Mack Trucks Incorporated; Mercantile Safe Deposit Company; Metropolitan Life Insurance Company; Montana Power Company; Montreal Locomotive Works Limited; Newmont Mining Corporation; New York Clearing House Building Company; New York, New Hampshire & Hudson Railroad Company; New York Rapid Transit Company; New England Steamship Company; Otis Elevator Company; Pacific Coast Company; Philadelphia Company; Pittsburgh Utilities Corporation; Rail Joint Company; Selected Industries Incorporated; Stone & Webster Incorporated; Western Union Telegraph Company; Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company; Underwood-Elliott Fisher Company; and Williamsburg Power Plant Corporation. Stockholder of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. and a friend to its senior partners.

Williamson, Frederick E.
exec. committee
Railroad executive, president Burlington system in 1929, president New York Central 1931-1944.

Wilson, Carroll Louis
died 1982
Graduated in 1932. Appointed first assistant to MIT president Karl Taylor Compton and vice-president Vannevar Bush in 1932. After Vannevar Bush left MIT in 1939 to become president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington D.C., Carroll Wilson followed him within a year (Vannevar remained at that post until 1955). Wilson became the first General Manager of the Atomic Energy Commission in early 1947. Vice president and director of National Research Corporation. President of Climax Uranium Company. Vice president and general manager of Metals and Controls Corporation. Identified as a member of the Cosmos Club in the 1950s. Became a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in 1959. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1978. Co-founder of the Club of Rome in 1968. Worked on the Club of Rome 1972 "limits to growth" report. The report triggered a storm of controversy by challenging the universal assumption that economic growth was the optimum scenario for all countries in all times. Project Director of the workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies (WAES) 1974-1977. World Coal Study 1978-1980. Vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1978-1979. Initially involved in the European Security Study 1981-1983.

Wilson, George T.
Born in New York City, September 23, 1859, the son of John Cochran and Eliza Macgregor Wilson. Both his parents were Scots. educated in the New York public schools and at the College of the City of New York, and was graduated in the class of 1875. Princeton University conferred on him the Honorary Degree of Master of Arts in 1892. began work as an office boy, at a salary of three dollars a week, with the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, in June, 1875, later becoming general utility man in the company’s office. He did not possess the "pull" that so many consider essential to success in any large business; but by constant study and close application to the most minor details of this great organization, he was soon the indispensible man in every department with which he was connected. He was secretary to James W. Alexander, President of the Equitable Society, afterward executive secretary, second assistant secretary, and fourth, third and second Vice-President——the last of which offices he holds with notable ability at the present time. He has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Society since 1892, and has a remarkable hold on the agency force, being one of the best handlers of men in the country. Director of the American Surety Company, the Union Exchange National Bank, and the Equitable Trust Company. Member of a large number of clubs and societies, among others: the St. Andrew’s Society of the State of New York, the Pilgrims (of which he was a founder and is Vice-President and Chairman of the Executive Committee), St. George’s Society, New England Society, Japan Society, Pan-American Society, France-America Society, New York Chamber of Commerce, Merchants Association of New York, American Chamber of Commerce in Paris (France), and of the following clubs: Metropolitan, Union League, Princeton, New York Yacht, Lawyers’ (of which he is a life-member), Bankers’ (of which he is Vice-President and Chairman of the Executive Committee), Knollwood Country Club (of which he is President), Sleepy Hollow Country Club; Nassau and University Cottage Clubs, Princeton, N. J.; Bath Club, London (England); and American Club, Paris (France).

Winant, John Gilbert
Winant attended St. Paul's School in Concord as well as Princeton University. He was appointed an instructor in history at St. Paul's in 1913, remaining there until 1917. He was elected to the New Hampshire General Court in 1916 and enlisted in the American Expeditionary Force in 1917. Winant returned to his position at St. Paul's in 1919 after his military service, and was elected to the State Senate in 1920. He lost money in oil stocks in 1929, which he had profited from through the 1920s. Republican Governor of New Hampshire from 1925-1927 and 1931-1935. FDR appointed Winant to be the first head of the Social Security Board in 1935, a position he held until 1937. Ambassador to Great Britain 1941-1946. President Harry S. Truman appointed him U.S. representative to UNESCO in 1946, although he retired to his home in Concord shortly after to write his memoirs. Winant committed suicide in 1947 and was buried at St. Paul's School.

Wince-Smith, Deborah L.
Trained as a classical archaeologist, Ms. Wince-Smith graduated Phi Beta Kappa and Magna cum Laude from Vassar College and received her master’s degree from King’s College, Cambridge University. She is a frequent speaker at conferences and symposia and an author on technology policy and innovation. During the Reagan Administration, Ms. Wince-Smith served as the Assistant Director for International Affairs and Competitiveness in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. As a Program Manager at the National Science Foundation from 1976-1984, she managed U.S. research programs with Eastern European countries and U.S. universities. First Assistant Secretary for Technology Policy in the Department of Commerce Technology Administration from 1989 to 1993. In that capacity, she developed technology policies and national initiatives to strengthen U.S. productivity and economic competitiveness. She served on White House policy councils, chaired the Interagency Committee on Federal Technology Transfer, and directed the President’s National Technology Initiative. She was also the U.S. representative to the multilateral Intelligent Manufacturing Systems Consortium with government and private sector leaders from the U.S., Europe, Japan, and Canada. Became president of the Council on Competitiveness in December 2001, a non-profit coalition of chief executives from leading businesses, academia, and organized labor focused on improving the competitiveness of U.S. industry and raising the standard of living in America. University of Chicago Board of Governors for Argonne National Laboratory. Member of the Council of the Woodrow Wilson Center. Member of the University of California Review Committees for Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Member of the Boards of Overseers of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Member of the Pilgrims of the United States and the International Women’s Forum. Senior fellow at the Congressional Economic Leadership Institute. Member of the Board of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc.

Wolfe, Henry Cutler
Wrote “The Imperial Soviets” (1940). He was with the American Relief Administration in Russia in 1922, another front for assisting the Bolsheviks. Wolfe was a contributor to Harper’s magazine, Saturday Review, New York Times, Wall Street Journal and others.

Wood, Leonard
A Major General. Grand Officer, Order of the Golden Grain (China); Grand Officer, Order of the Rising Sun (Japan); Grand Officer, Legion of Honor (France); Grand Officer, Order of Mauritius and Lazarus (Italy); Roosevelt Medal; Ambassador to Argentina (1910); Chief of Staff, United States Army, 1910-1914; Commander, Department of the East, 1914-1917; chairman, special mission from U.S. to Philippine Islands, visiting Japan and China, 1921; governor-general, Philippine Islands, 1921. Candidate for Republican Presidential nomination, 1920; Congressional Medal of Honor, 1898, "for distinguished conduct in campaign against Apache Indians."

Woods, George Donald
Director of the Chase International Investment Corp. Chairman and consultant First Boston Corporation. President World Bank 1963-1968. Member Rockefeller Commission Report (to solve the problem of overpopulation) 1970. Member RIIA.

Woolley, Clarence Mott
Family an inheritor of the Van Rensselaer land fortune dating to 1630. President of Morgan-financed American Radiator Corporation 1902-1924. Vice-chairman of the War Trade Board in 1917. Chairman New York Federal Reserve 1922-1936. Director of General Motors and General Electric. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1932-1935.

Worcester, Robert M.
President of the World Association for Public Opinion Research, founder (1969) and chairman of MORI, which is a highly respected British polling company with associated companies in Europe, Australia, Asia, and Latin America, described as an "anglophile American" who was born in Kansas but heads the British Pilgrims (in 2005). He is author or co-author of more than a dozen books, is a regular contributor to newspapers and magazines, and as Visiting Professor of Government at LSE, speaks not only with his pollster's expertise, but as a political scientist and internationalist, frequently appearing on American and Canadian radio and television. He is a governor of the English-Speaking Union and a trustee of the Magna Carta Trust. He is a freeman of the City of London and a governor of the Ditchley Foundation, and he was a member of the Fulbright Commission. He has been awarded Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire and has been advisor to two prime ministers. He is president of ENCAMS, an environmental charity, a vice president of Royal Society for Nature Conservation/Wildlife Trusts, of the United Nations Association and of the European Atlantic Group. Sir Robert is a trustee of Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust and a former trustee of Worldwide Fund for Nature. He is also a member of the Trilateral Commission.

Wrench, Sir Evelyn
Founder of the English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth (1918) and of the U.S. English Speaking Union (1920). Founder of the Overseas League. Member of the Newcomen Society.

Wright, Joshua Butler
Counselor at the American embassy in Petrograd (former capital of Russia) in 1916, secretary of the American delegation at the Opium Conference at The Hague in 1913, U.S. Commissioner at the Brazilian Centennial Exposition in Rio de Janeiro in 1922, secretary of the U.S. delegation to the 5th International Conference of American States in Santiago, Chile, in 1923.

Wriston, Henry M.
President Brown University 1937-1955. Trustee Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 1943-1954. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1943-1950. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1951. President Council on Foreign Relations 1951-1964.

Wriston, Walter Bigelow
Officer of the State Department, served 4 years in the Army during World War II, three of them as the commander of a Signal Corps unit in the Philippines, chairman Citibank/Citicorp 1970-1984, director Council on Foreign Relations 1981-1987, director of General Electric, Rand Corporation, Chubb Corporation (insurance), United Meridian Corporation, Fremont Group, York International, ICOS Corporation, AEA Investors, Sequoia Ventures and others.

Young, Owen D.
exec. committee
Member Yale Institute of Human Relations. Decorated the Order of the Rising Sun by Japan 1921. Chairman General Electric 1922-1939. Director Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1923-1940. Chairman International Chamber of Commerce 1925-1928. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1940. Chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1938-1940. Chairman committee on the Inquiry into the Character and Cost of Public Education of New York 1934.

Young, Samuel Baldwin Marks
Lieutenant General from Pittsburgh who fought in the Civil War, fought in the Spanish-American War (1898-1899) and was Presidential Chief of Staff in 1903. He became the first president of the War College, 1902-1903, in Washington, D.C.

Zirin, James D.
exec. committee
Princeton University (A.B., 1961). The University of Michigan Law School (J.D., 1964). Partner in Sidley, Austin, Brown & Wood's New York office where he is a member of the litigation department. Mr. Zirin has been a trial lawyer for over 30 years. Prior to joining the firm in 1993, he had been a partner in Breed, Abbott & Morgan and an Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York where he served in the criminal division for three years under Robert M. Morgenthau (son of the well known Pilgrim Henry Morgenthau, Jr., who came up with the Morgenthau Plan which economically ruined Germany after WWII). Recently Mr. Zirin accepted New York Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg's (Sun Valley meetings) appointment to a four year term on the Commmission to Combat Police Corruption (CCPC). Mr. Zirin has appeared in state and federal courts around the nation. His practice has featured the defense of major accounting firms charged with violations of professional responsibility and in substantial class actions. These matters have included the American Express salad oil and Equity Funding cases where he represented Deloitte Haskins & Sells, and the IOS and DeLorean litigations where he represented Arthur Andersen. His clients have also included The Rockefeller Foundation, Merrill Lynch, Citibank and Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. He represented a Brazilian trader who was a significant figure in the silver debacle of 1979 and 1980. He has handled white collar criminal cases, shareholders litigation, and directors and officers liability cases. His experience includes litigation involving reinsurance on the London market, arbitration and alternate dispute resolution. He recovered over $100 million in cash and property for Armco in its requirements contract litigation with Allied Chemical. He has appeared in major estates litigation, most notably the Rothko case, the estate of William S. Todman as well as the litigation involving the estate of the widow of the expressionist artist, Max Beckmann. He served as an arbitrator in the complex disputes involving the limited partnership owning the Helmsley Palace Hotel. Mr. Zirin is a frequent contributor of articles on legal affairs to Forbes, Barron's, the London Times, the Washington Times and the New York Law Journal. He has spoken on the litigation aspects of "Accessing the American Capital Markets" at the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange, Sao Paulo, Brazil; on officers and directors liability at an insurance colloquium in Santiago, Chile; and on the resolution of China disputes through international arbitration at Fudan University, Shanghai. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and of the executive committee of The Pilgrims of the United States. He is a Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers, a member of its governing downstate committee and currently chairs its alternatives for dispute resolution committee. He is a trustee of New York Law School; a member of the Consolidated Corporate Fund Leadership Committee of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and a member of the Board of Editors of the New York Law Journal.